(Quiz 1 covers chapter 1, 2), (Quiz 2 is chapter 4,) (Quiz 6 is chap 19), (Quiz 10 is chapter 20) (+ the
associated lecture material, of course) and the Canadian environmental geology lecture (the last lecture).
Why do plates diverge and sink?
d. all of the answers are correct
The lithosphere is ____.
a. only part of the mantle
b. the same as the crust
c. the crust and uppermost mantle
d. the layer beneath the crust
What would you most expect to find at continent-continent convergence?
a. island arc
b. continent-continent convergence is impossible
c. mountain belt
d. magmatic arc
e. mid-ocean ridge
The universe formed 4.5 billion years ago from debris left over following the Big Bang. True or false?
4.55 billion 3 million
The Earth is about years old. Humans have been on Earth for about years. For what
percentage of the Earth’s lifetime have humans been on Earth 0.067 ?
Seafloor spreading implies that seafloor rocks should be _______________.
1. the same age throughout 2. younger as water becomes colder
3. youngest on the continental shelf
4. youngest on the crest of mid-ocean ridges
5. younger toward the trench
The mesozoic southern supercontinent is called ____.
Please choose the best answer from the options below in order to fill in the blank. Geology developed as a
scientific discipline in the late eighteenth century as a result of _____________.
1. New demands for resources.
2. William Smith proposing that a supercontinent called Pangea existed 250 Ma.
3. An increase in the skill level of map makers.
4. The appointment of Sir William Logan as the first director of the Canadian Geological Survey in 1842.
The Eastern coast of Canada is a passive continental margin. True or false?
The Hawaiian islands are thought to be the result of ____.
a. meteorite impact
b. ocean-ocean convergence
c. mantle plumes
e. mid-ocean ridge volcanics
The largest zone of Earth's interior by volume is the ___.
a. inner core
b. mantle c. crust
d. outer core
Please fill in the blanks in this paragraph:
The Burgess Shale is exposed in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and contains some of the
world’s most important . They lived around years ago and consist of a remarkable
assemblage of arthropods, sponges, mollusks, worms and some of the earliest chordates. This diverse and
spectacular assemblage has allowed scientists to learn a great deal about the evolution of complex life forms during
the ‘ explosion’.
The sliding of the sea floor beneath a continent or island arc is called ____.
c. polar wandering
The San Andreas fault in California is a ____.
a. reverse fault
b. transform fault
c. normal fault
d. thrust fault
What would you most expect to find at ocean-continent convergence?
a. suture zone
b. magmatic arc
c. ocean-continent convergence is impossible
d. island arc
e. mid-ocean ridge
Please match the following SCIENTISTS with some of their MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS to the science of
geology. You may use each SCIENTIST as many or as few times as you wish.
B. __________ created the first
comprehensive geological map of A. ALFRED WEGENER
Box_1.3.Fig_1.jpg.jpg England in 1815 B. WILLIAM SMITH
C. J. TUZO WILSON
D. __________ was the first to create a
systematic layout of the geology of
D. SIR WILLIAM LOGAN
D. _________ created an inventory of
Canada ’s mineral resources
A. _________ first proposed the concept
of continental drift
C. ________. His work on hot spots and
transform faults contributed
substantially to the development of
the plate tectonic theory.
Passive continental margins are created at ____.
a. divergent plate boundaries
b. transform faults
c. convergent plate boundaries
d. none of the other answers is correct
Please use the options below to fill in the blanks in this sentence. Rocks formed within the Earth are brought to
the surface by (choose these two answers in alphabetical order) and
forces. New sediments are formed as these rocks are broken down by surficial processes. Over time, sediments
become lithified and create rocks; these rocks may be buried and changed by the effects of
heat and to form rocks. Metamorphic rocks may partially melt to form
magma which produces rocks.
In cross-section, the plates are part of a rigid outer shell of the Earth called the ___.
d. crust One possible mechanism for plate tectonic drive is _____.
1. earthquake energy
2. Benioff drive
3. gravity sliding
4. meteor impacts
5. slab pull
The Morley-Vine-Matthews hypothesis provided a means to measure the rate of sea-floor motion. True
Please choose the best definition of GEOLOGY from the following list.
1. Geology is the scientific study of geologic maps.
2. Geology is the scientific study of petroleum reservoirs.
3. Geology is the scientific study of the Earth.
4. Geology is the scientific study of mines.
One kind of convergent plate boundary is _____.
1. mid ocean ridge convergence
2. continent–continent convergence
3. transform convergence
4. rift valley convergence
The sea floor is older than the earth. True or false?
Please match the following JOB TITLES with these descriptors of some possible job duties.
B. This person might integrate a number of digital sources of data including satellite
images, aerial photography, bathymetric surveys and data from sonar and seismic surveys. These data would then be manipulated using GIS and 3D modeling software.
C. This person might be hired for jobs relating to bridge construction, earthquake
resistance and slope stability.
A. This person must understand the three-dimensional layering of different sediment
types below the site and identify which layers contain and transmit contaminants.
D. This person might combine his analysis with geophysical data and broader geological
knowledge to produce a three dimensional picture of the subsurface reservoir rocks.
E. One way to find success in this person's field would be to reconstruct former ice flow
directions to find the source of any gold particles he finds.
Please fill in the blanks in the following statements using the answers below. You may use each answer as many
times (or as few times) as you wish. Differentiation occurs when the accretion of ,
gravitational and decay of isotopes causes extreme heating and
partial compression of the Earth. radioactive materials such as iron and nickel then sink to
the centre of the planet and other materials such as silica and oxygen float to the surface.
The geosphere is part of a larger Earth system. Processes that operate within the Earth system are driven by
external and internal energy sources.
sun geothermal en
Earth's external energy source is driven by . Earth's internal energy source is driven by .
Is continental drift the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is broken into plates that are in motion?
Please fill in the blanks in the following sentence. The three major types of meteorites IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER
iron stony stony iron
are , and .
What would you most expect to find at ocean-ocean convergence? a. magmatic arc
b. mid oceanic ridge
c. suture zone
d. island arc
e. ocean-ocean convergence is impossible
An aulacogen is ____.
a. triple junction
c. failed rift
d. a conical undersea mountain that rises 1000 m or more above the seafloor
Which of the following statements is the most correct?
1. The development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere led directly to the evolution of photosynthetic life forms.
2. Photosynthetic life first developed in the Holocene.
3. Volcanic eruptions led directly to the evolution of photosynthetic life.
4. Evolution of photosynthetic life forms allowed development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere.
core crust mantle
The three major concentric zones of the Earth’s interior are , , and . These are
one word answers and you MUST put them in alphabetical order to get credit.
Quiz 2 Three types of earthquakes could affect southwestern British Columbia. These are: ___+___+___
b. Rayleigh wave
e. S wave
f. Love wave
g. P wave
LITHOPROBE project has as its main objective:
a. drilling the world's deepest drill hole
b. studying the gas and mineralized waters that circulate through open fractures in the continental
c. locating new areas in which to mine gold and other precious metals
d. understanding the major geological terranes in the Canadian Shield
Most earthquakes in Canada occur along the Cascadia Subduction Zone . The
Canadian city at highest risk for earthquakes isVancouver .
Earthquakes in the Ottawa/St. Lawrence Rift areas are associated with
reactivation of faults associated with aulocogens .
P waves are ______.
4. like rolling ocean waves
The ULVZ may be caused by the core partially melting overlying mantle rock.
Most of the continental crust is made of ____ rock.
b. limestone c. quartz
Most of the oceanic crust is made of _____ rock.
The types of convergent boundaries are:
a. divergent, convergent, transform
b. ocean/ocean, ocean/continent, continent/continent
c. midoceanic ridge, spreading centre, continental rift
d. none of the above
0 2 points Save Please match the following set of geological characteristics with each of their resultant
2. Ore bodies
1. Negative magnetic anomaly
2. Igneous intrusions 2. Positive magnetic anomaly
3. No magnetic anomaly
2. Basement highs
1. Thick sedimentary fill over grabens
The point within the Earth where seismic waves originate is called the ___.
c. fault scarp
Why are most earthquakes generated in the crust and not in the mantle?
1. Mantle rocks store and release energy suddenly.
2. Most earthquakes are generated in the mantle. 3. Stress and deformation cause mantle rocks to flow.
4. Rocks in the crust flow plastically.
Lithosphere is another name for crust.
travel through both the inner and outer core whereas are thought to
only travel through the inner core. The oceanic crust is made of basalt in the upper parts and
gabbro in the lower parts. The continental crust is composed of granitoid rocks. The
upper mantle is composed of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite . The P-wave
is found at the core/mantle boundary and it provides the size and shape of the core. The S-
shadow zone liquid
wave suggests that the outer core is .
Which one(s) of the following was/were not used to figure out the contents of the planet's core? Please
check as many as apply.
1. Iron-nickel meteorites
3. Magnetic field
5. Seismic tomography
6. Density studies
Most earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries are ___.
a. all of the answers are true
b. deep focus
c. shallow focus
d. intermediate focus
Please match the following geological characteristics with the BEST choice for each of their
resultant gravity anomalies.
3. High density rock
1. Negative gravity anomaly 1. Low density rock 2. No gravity anomaly
3. Positive gravity anomaly
3. Ore bodies
1. Ocean trenches
3. Regions above isostatic equilibrium
1. Regions below isostatic equilibrium
Most of the mantle is made up of ______.
Earthquake damage is caused by ground motion. Five (5) examples of the type of damage that is often
caused by earthquakes include: [d], [e], [f], [g] and [h].
3. seismic sea wave
5. land displacement
9. toppled buildings
10. volcanic eruption
Geologists study the composition of the Earth's core using deep drill holes.
Please choose the observations from the list below that have been used to predict earthquakes.
1. elevation change 2. magnetism
4. surface tilting
6. animal behaviour
7. geyser eruption
8. changes in rock properties
9. water levels in wells
10. radon emission
0.5 points Save Buildings which are (have) ________ are the most resistant to seismic shaking.
1. heavy roofs and lots of stories tall
2. taller buildings
3. strong, flexible and light building materials
4. unreinforced block or brick building materials
The Indonesia/Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 26th, 2004 was of magnitude . It
had a relatively in the open ocean but was amplified in shallow coastal waters
devastating low lying coastal communities. Inundation distance ranged from 250 m to more than
1 000 metres in Sri Lanka.
Please match the following terms with the BEST definition of each from the list below:
4. seismic tomography
1. the bending of seismic waves as they pass from
one material to another
7. seismic reflection 2. the study of ancient magnetic fields
3. very small changes in the planet's electric or
4. uses earthquake waves to study a cross section
of the mantle
5. predicts that the higher a mountain range
extends above sea level the deeper it extends
into the mantle
6. the rise of the surface after the removal of
7. the return of some of the energy of a seismic
wave to the Earth's surface after it bounces off a
5. isostatic adjustment
8. the zone of weakness in the mantle on which
the lithosphere moves 6. crustal rebound 9. the boundary that separates the crust from the
10. consists of the crust and uppermost mantle
1. seismic refraction
___ detect seismic waves by measuring ground motion. Machines which record these measurements
are called ___ and the paper or digital records themselves are called ___.
a. seismogram, seismometer, seismograph
b. seismogram, seismograph, seismometer
c. seismograph, seismometer, seismogram
d. seismometer, seismograph, seismogram
e. seismometer, seismogram, seismograph
f. seismograph, seismogram, seismometer
What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to determine the location of the epicentre of an
At the core-mantle boundary we find increasing seismic velocity, increasing density and
increasing temperature as we proceed toward the centre of the planet. Quiz 6
Question 1 1 points Save
Where does most glacial ice originate?
Zone of accumulation.
Zone of wastage.
Question 2 0.5 points Save
The Laurentian Ice Sheet was 3 km thick.
Question 3 0.5 points Save
The Toronto area contains a world famous record of past ice age and interglacial
Question 4 0.5 points Save
A tree trunk buried in sediment is a plant macrofossil True
Question 5 1 points Save
What term refers to a type of glacial erosion?
Question 6 0.5 points Save
Coal requires a hot dry climate to form.
Question 7 0.5 points Save
The importance of astronomical variables in changing Earth’s climate was first
realized by Louis Agassiz
Question 8 0.5 points Save
Eccentricity refers to elongation of the earth’s orbit around the Sun T or True
Question 9 0.5 points Save
Long-term changes in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere reflect the formation
and breakup of supercontinents
Question 10 0.5 points Save
A moraine forms under an ice sheet
Question 11 1 points Save
Where do crevasses form in glaciers?
Where a glacier flows into a bay.
Where a glacier drags large rocks over bedrock.
Where a glacier is melting.
Where a glacier is subjected to tension.
Where pieces of ice break off of a glacier.
Question 12 1 points Save
What type of moraines form from the coalescing of two glaciers? Ground moraines.
Question 13 0.5 points Save
The breakup of Pangea pushed North America southwards warming the continent
after 60 Ma.
Question 14 0.5 points Save
Using astronomical variables, we can predict the beginning of the next ice age (if we
haven’t entirely changed the way in which climate changes).
Question 15 0.5 points Save
Does sea level reflect the formation and breakup of supercontinents?
Question 16 0.5 points Save The Don Valley Brickyard is world famous because it records the climatic transition
from the last interglacial to the last ice age.
Question 17 0.5 points Save
The movement of continents creates short-term changes in climate
Question 18 0.5 points Save
Astronomical variables have operated since the beginnings of the planet but are
very weak influences on climate.
Question 19 0.5 points Save
Whole margin leaves indicate cool conditions
Question 20 0.5 points Save
The study of paleoclimatology started with the discovery of a woolly mammoth
found in permafrost. True
Question 21 0.5 points Save
A ‘Heinrich event’ is an abrupt global cooling caused by the drainage of large glacial
Question 22 0.5 points Save
The warmest part of our own interglacial is called the hypsithermal
Question 23 4.5 points Save
Match the features left by glaciation with their definitions (choose the BEST answer for
A. Mounds of glacial debris.
B. Bowl-shaped depressions.
C. Shallow lakes or ponds.
D. Sharp and jagged ridges.
E. Steep-sided ocean inlets.
I. F. Streamlined hills.
G. Scratches in bedrock.
A. Kames. H. Out-of-place boulders. I. Sharp mountain peaks.
Question 24 1 points Save
Serrated leaves are typical of trees in a) cool or b) warm climates. a
Question 25 1 points Save
What term refers to glacial melting below the snow line?
Question 26 0.5 points Save
Foraminifera are small fossils found in marine sediments True
Question 27 0.5 points Save
We live in an interglacial called the Holocene.
Question 28 0.5 points Save
More recent glaciations are shorter and more frequent than earlier ones.
Question 29 0.5 points Save
The Mindel is a glaciation
Question 30 0.5 points Save
Till forms in deserts.
Question 31 1 points Save
During an ice age, sea level falls by: 70 m
Question 32 3.5 points Save
Match each type of glacial deposit with its definition (choose the BEST answer).
A. Material left directly by glaciers.
Erratic B. Wind-blown glacial sediment.
C. A depositional glacial landform.
G. Loess D. All glacial sediment.
E. Stream-deposited glacial sediment.
A. Moraine F. A boulder dropped by a glacier.
G. Fine-ground glacial debris.