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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

(Quiz 1 covers chapter 1, 2), (Quiz 2 is chapter 4,) (Quiz 6 is chap 19), (Quiz 10 is chapter 20) (+ the associated lecture material, of course) and the Canadian environmental geology lecture (the last lecture). Quiz 1 Why do plates diverge and sink? a. ridge-push b. slab-pull c. trench-suction d. all of the answers are correct The lithosphere is ____. a. only part of the mantle b. the same as the crust c. the crust and uppermost mantle d. the layer beneath the crust What would you most expect to find at continent-continent convergence? a. island arc b. continent-continent convergence is impossible c. mountain belt d. magmatic arc e. mid-ocean ridge The universe formed 4.5 billion years ago from debris left over following the Big Bang. True or false? True False 4.55 billion 3 million The Earth is about years old. Humans have been on Earth for about years. For what percentage of the Earth’s lifetime have humans been on Earth 0.067 ? Seafloor spreading implies that seafloor rocks should be _______________. 1. the same age throughout 2. younger as water becomes colder 3. youngest on the continental shelf 4. youngest on the crest of mid-ocean ridges 5. younger toward the trench The mesozoic southern supercontinent is called ____. a. Gondwanaland b. Laurasia c. Glossopteris d. Pangea Please choose the best answer from the options below in order to fill in the blank. Geology developed as a scientific discipline in the late eighteenth century as a result of _____________. 1. New demands for resources. 2. William Smith proposing that a supercontinent called Pangea existed 250 Ma. 3. An increase in the skill level of map makers. 4. The appointment of Sir William Logan as the first director of the Canadian Geological Survey in 1842. The Eastern coast of Canada is a passive continental margin. True or false? True False The Hawaiian islands are thought to be the result of ____. a. meteorite impact b. ocean-ocean convergence c. mantle plumes d. subduction e. mid-ocean ridge volcanics The largest zone of Earth's interior by volume is the ___. a. inner core b. mantle c. crust d. outer core Please fill in the blanks in this paragraph: The Burgess Shale is exposed in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and contains some of the world’s most important . They lived around years ago and consist of a remarkable assemblage of arthropods, sponges, mollusks, worms and some of the earliest chordates. This diverse and spectacular assemblage has allowed scientists to learn a great deal about the evolution of complex life forms during the ‘ explosion’. The sliding of the sea floor beneath a continent or island arc is called ____. a. rotation b. subduction c. polar wandering d. tension The San Andreas fault in California is a ____. a. reverse fault b. transform fault c. normal fault d. thrust fault What would you most expect to find at ocean-continent convergence? a. suture zone b. magmatic arc c. ocean-continent convergence is impossible d. island arc e. mid-ocean ridge Please match the following SCIENTISTS with some of their MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS to the science of geology. You may use each SCIENTIST as many or as few times as you wish. B. __________ created the first comprehensive geological map of A. ALFRED WEGENER Box_1.3.Fig_1.jpg.jpg England in 1815 B. WILLIAM SMITH Box_1.1.Fig_1.jpg.jpg C. J. TUZO WILSON D. __________ was the first to create a systematic layout of the geology of Canada Box_1.4.Fig_1.jpg.jpg D. SIR WILLIAM LOGAN Box_1.2.Fig_1.jpg.jpg D. _________ created an inventory of Canada ’s mineral resources A. _________ first proposed the concept of continental drift C. ________. His work on hot spots and transform faults contributed substantially to the development of the plate tectonic theory. Passive continental margins are created at ____. a. divergent plate boundaries b. transform faults c. convergent plate boundaries d. none of the other answers is correct Please use the options below to fill in the blanks in this sentence. Rocks formed within the Earth are brought to the surface by (choose these two answers in alphabetical order) and forces. New sediments are formed as these rocks are broken down by surficial processes. Over time, sediments become lithified and create rocks; these rocks may be buried and changed by the effects of heat and to form rocks. Metamorphic rocks may partially melt to form magma which produces rocks. In cross-section, the plates are part of a rigid outer shell of the Earth called the ___. a. asthenosphere b. lithosphere c. mantle d. crust One possible mechanism for plate tectonic drive is _____. 1. earthquake energy 2. Benioff drive 3. gravity sliding 4. meteor impacts 5. slab pull The Morley-Vine-Matthews hypothesis provided a means to measure the rate of sea-floor motion. True or false? True False Please choose the best definition of GEOLOGY from the following list. 1. Geology is the scientific study of geologic maps. 2. Geology is the scientific study of petroleum reservoirs. 3. Geology is the scientific study of the Earth. 4. Geology is the scientific study of mines. One kind of convergent plate boundary is _____. 1. mid ocean ridge convergence 2. continent–continent convergence 3. transform convergence 4. rift valley convergence The sea floor is older than the earth. True or false? True False Please match the following JOB TITLES with these descriptors of some possible job duties. B. This person might integrate a number of digital sources of data including satellite images, aerial photography, bathymetric surveys and data from sonar and seismic surveys. These data would then be manipulated using GIS and 3D modeling software. C. This person might be hired for jobs relating to bridge construction, earthquake resistance and slope stability. A. This person must understand the three-dimensional layering of different sediment types below the site and identify which layers contain and transmit contaminants. D. This person might combine his analysis with geophysical data and broader geological knowledge to produce a three dimensional picture of the subsurface reservoir rocks. E. One way to find success in this person's field would be to reconstruct former ice flow directions to find the source of any gold particles he finds. Please fill in the blanks in the following statements using the answers below. You may use each answer as many explosion times (or as few times) as you wish. Differentiation occurs when the accretion of , dense radioactive gravitational and decay of isotopes causes extreme heating and partial compression of the Earth. radioactive materials such as iron and nickel then sink to the centre of the planet and other materials such as silica and oxygen float to the surface. 2. a 1. b 3. c The geosphere is part of a larger Earth system. Processes that operate within the Earth system are driven by external and internal energy sources. sun geothermal en Earth's external energy source is driven by . Earth's internal energy source is driven by . Is continental drift the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is broken into plates that are in motion? Yes No Please fill in the blanks in the following sentence. The three major types of meteorites IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER iron stony stony iron are , and . What would you most expect to find at ocean-ocean convergence? a. magmatic arc b. mid oceanic ridge c. suture zone d. island arc e. ocean-ocean convergence is impossible An aulacogen is ____. a. triple junction b. graben c. failed rift d. a conical undersea mountain that rises 1000 m or more above the seafloor Which of the following statements is the most correct? 1. The development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere led directly to the evolution of photosynthetic life forms. 2. Photosynthetic life first developed in the Holocene. 3. Volcanic eruptions led directly to the evolution of photosynthetic life. 4. Evolution of photosynthetic life forms allowed development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere. core crust mantle The three major concentric zones of the Earth’s interior are , , and . These are one word answers and you MUST put them in alphabetical order to get credit. Quiz 2 Three types of earthquakes could affect southwestern British Columbia. These are: ___+___+___ earthquakes. a. subduction b. Rayleigh wave c. intraplate d. crustal e. S wave f. Love wave g. P wave LITHOPROBE project has as its main objective: a. drilling the world's deepest drill hole b. studying the gas and mineralized waters that circulate through open fractures in the continental crust c. locating new areas in which to mine gold and other precious metals d. understanding the major geological terranes in the Canadian Shield Most earthquakes in Canada occur along the Cascadia Subduction Zone . The Canadian city at highest risk for earthquakes isVancouver . Earthquakes in the Ottawa/St. Lawrence Rift areas are associated with reactivation of faults associated with aulocogens . P waves are ______. 1. transverse 2. tensional 3. compressional 4. like rolling ocean waves The ULVZ may be caused by the core partially melting overlying mantle rock. Yes No Most of the continental crust is made of ____ rock. a. granite b. limestone c. quartz d. basalt e. conglomerate Most of the oceanic crust is made of _____ rock. a. limestone b. quartz c. granite d. basalt e. peridotite f. conglomerate The types of convergent boundaries are: a. divergent, convergent, transform b. ocean/ocean, ocean/continent, continent/continent c. midoceanic ridge, spreading centre, continental rift d. none of the above 0 2 points Save Please match the following set of geological characteristics with each of their resultant magnetic anomalies. 2. Ore bodies 1. Negative magnetic anomaly 2. Igneous intrusions 2. Positive magnetic anomaly 3. No magnetic anomaly 2. Basement highs 1. Thick sedimentary fill over grabens The point within the Earth where seismic waves originate is called the ___. a. epicentre b. fold c. fault scarp d. focus Why are most earthquakes generated in the crust and not in the mantle? 1. Mantle rocks store and release energy suddenly. 2. Most earthquakes are generated in the mantle. 3. Stress and deformation cause mantle rocks to flow. 4. Rocks in the crust flow plastically. Lithosphere is another name for crust. Yes No P-waves S-waves travel through both the inner and outer core whereas are thought to only travel through the inner core. The oceanic crust is made of basalt in the upper parts and gabbro in the lower parts. The continental crust is composed of granitoid rocks. The upper mantle is composed of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite . The P-wave velocity zone is found at the core/mantle boundary and it provides the size and shape of the core. The S- shadow zone liquid wave suggests that the outer core is . Which one(s) of the following was/were not used to figure out the contents of the planet's core? Please check as many as apply. 1. Iron-nickel meteorites 2. Diamonds 3. Magnetic field 4. Drilling 5. Seismic tomography 6. Density studies Most earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries are ___. a. all of the answers are true b. deep focus c. shallow focus d. intermediate focus Please match the following geological characteristics with the BEST choice for each of their resultant gravity anomalies. 3. High density rock 1. Negative gravity anomaly 1. Low density rock 2. No gravity anomaly 3. Positive gravity anomaly 3. Ore bodies 1. Ocean trenches 3. Regions above isostatic equilibrium 1. Regions below isostatic equilibrium Most of the mantle is made up of ______. a. conglomerate b. shale c. basalt d. limestone e. quartz f. peridotite Earthquake damage is caused by ground motion. Five (5) examples of the type of damage that is often caused by earthquakes include: [d], [e], [f], [g] and [h]. 1. fire 2. landslides 3. seismic sea wave 4. disease 5. land displacement 6. tsunami 7. liquefaction 8. flooding 9. toppled buildings 10. volcanic eruption Geologists study the composition of the Earth's core using deep drill holes. Yes No Please choose the observations from the list below that have been used to predict earthquakes. 1. elevation change 2. magnetism 3. microseism 4. surface tilting 5. foreshocks 6. animal behaviour 7. geyser eruption 8. changes in rock properties 9. water levels in wells 10. radon emission 0.5 points Save Buildings which are (have) ________ are the most resistant to seismic shaking. 1. heavy roofs and lots of stories tall 2. taller buildings 3. strong, flexible and light building materials 4. unreinforced block or brick building materials 9.3 The Indonesia/Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 26th, 2004 was of magnitude . It small amplitude had a relatively in the open ocean but was amplified in shallow coastal waters devastating low lying coastal communities. Inundation distance ranged from 250 m to more than 1 000 metres in Sri Lanka. Please match the following terms with the BEST definition of each from the list below: 4. seismic tomography 1. the bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to another 7. seismic reflection 2. the study of ancient magnetic fields 3. very small changes in the planet's electric or magnetic fields 9. Moho 4. uses earthquake waves to study a cross section of the mantle 5. predicts that the higher a mountain range 10. lithosphere extends above sea level the deeper it extends into the mantle 6. the rise of the surface after the removal of 8. asthenosphere glacial ice 7. the return of some of the energy of a seismic wave to the Earth's surface after it bounces off a 5. isostatic adjustment rock boundary 8. the zone of weakness in the mantle on which the lithosphere moves 6. crustal rebound 9. the boundary that separates the crust from the mantle 10. consists of the crust and uppermost mantle 3. magnetotellurics 1. seismic refraction 2. paleomagnetism ___ detect seismic waves by measuring ground motion. Machines which record these measurements are called ___ and the paper or digital records themselves are called ___. a. seismogram, seismometer, seismograph b. seismogram, seismograph, seismometer c. seismograph, seismometer, seismogram d. seismometer, seismograph, seismogram e. seismometer, seismogram, seismograph f. seismograph, seismogram, seismometer What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to determine the location of the epicentre of an earthquake? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 5 e. 10 At the core-mantle boundary we find increasing seismic velocity, increasing density and increasing temperature as we proceed toward the centre of the planet. Quiz 6 Question 1 1 points Save Where does most glacial ice originate? Moraines. Zone of accumulation. Zone of wastage. Snowline. Underground springs. Question 2 0.5 points Save The Laurentian Ice Sheet was 3 km thick. True False Question 3 0.5 points Save The Toronto area contains a world famous record of past ice age and interglacial climates. True False Question 4 0.5 points Save A tree trunk buried in sediment is a plant macrofossil True False Question 5 1 points Save What term refers to a type of glacial erosion? Calving. Surging. Plastic flow. Basal slip. Ablation. Plucking. Question 6 0.5 points Save Coal requires a hot dry climate to form. True False Question 7 0.5 points Save The importance of astronomical variables in changing Earth’s climate was first realized by Louis Agassiz True False Question 8 0.5 points Save Eccentricity refers to elongation of the earth’s orbit around the Sun T or True False Question 9 0.5 points Save Long-term changes in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere reflect the formation and breakup of supercontinents True False Question 10 0.5 points Save A moraine forms under an ice sheet True False Question 11 1 points Save Where do crevasses form in glaciers? Where a glacier flows into a bay. Where a glacier drags large rocks over bedrock. Where a glacier is melting. Where a glacier is subjected to tension. Where pieces of ice break off of a glacier. Question 12 1 points Save What type of moraines form from the coalescing of two glaciers? Ground moraines. Medial moraines. Terminal moraines. Recessional moraines. Lateral moraines. Question 13 0.5 points Save The breakup of Pangea pushed North America southwards warming the continent after 60 Ma. True False Question 14 0.5 points Save Using astronomical variables, we can predict the beginning of the next ice age (if we haven’t entirely changed the way in which climate changes). True False Question 15 0.5 points Save Does sea level reflect the formation and breakup of supercontinents? Yes No Question 16 0.5 points Save The Don Valley Brickyard is world famous because it records the climatic transition from the last interglacial to the last ice age. True False Question 17 0.5 points Save The movement of continents creates short-term changes in climate True False Question 18 0.5 points Save Astronomical variables have operated since the beginnings of the planet but are very weak influences on climate. True False Question 19 0.5 points Save Whole margin leaves indicate cool conditions True False Question 20 0.5 points Save The study of paleoclimatology started with the discovery of a woolly mammoth found in permafrost. True False Question 21 0.5 points Save A ‘Heinrich event’ is an abrupt global cooling caused by the drainage of large glacial lakes. True False Question 22 0.5 points Save The warmest part of our own interglacial is called the hypsithermal True False Question 23 4.5 points Save Match the features left by glaciation with their definitions (choose the BEST answer for each): D. Arêtes. A. Mounds of glacial debris. B. Cirques. B. Bowl-shaped depressions. F. Drumlins. C. Shallow lakes or ponds. H. Erratics. D. Sharp and jagged ridges. E. Fjords. E. Steep-sided ocean inlets. Horns. I. F. Streamlined hills. G. Scratches in bedrock. A. Kames. H. Out-of-place boulders. I. Sharp mountain peaks. G. Striations. C. Tarns. Question 24 1 points Save Serrated leaves are typical of trees in a) cool or b) warm climates. a warm climates deserts permafrost cool climates Question 25 1 points Save What term refers to glacial melting below the snow line? Plastic flow. Calving. Basal slip. Surging. Ablation. Plucking. Question 26 0.5 points Save Foraminifera are small fossils found in marine sediments True False Question 27 0.5 points Save We live in an interglacial called the Holocene. True False Question 28 0.5 points Save More recent glaciations are shorter and more frequent than earlier ones. True False Question 29 0.5 points Save The Mindel is a glaciation True False Question 30 0.5 points Save Till forms in deserts. True False Question 31 1 points Save During an ice age, sea level falls by: 70 m 100 m 140 m 200 m Question 32 3.5 points Save Match each type of glacial deposit with its definition (choose the BEST answer). C. Drift A. Material left directly by glaciers. Erratic B. Wind-blown glacial sediment. F. C. A depositional glacial landform. G. Loess D. All glacial sediment. E. Stream-deposited glacial sediment. A. Moraine F. A boulder dropped by a glacier. G. Fine-ground glacial debris. E. Outwash
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