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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

 Earth: A system is an assemblage of inter-rated elements comprising a unified whole ( eg human body ) The magma is called a BASALTIC magma (rich in iron or magnesium; same material comprises the ocean floor)  The four major interacting parts are Biosphere , Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere ( Cryosphere ) A'a and Pahoehoe A'a is sharp and rocky and kinda hurts  Biosphere: is all living or dead organic matter ( not the same as Ecosphere ). Has all vegetation on ocean and land ( Land = Vegetation ) ( ocean Pahoehoe is ropey looking, generally when the magma is a little hotter = Chlorophyll a ). When it comes out of the earth its lava but when its inside the earth its magma  Atmosphere: is all the air on the earth ,all the gases ( mostly 78% nitrogen , 21% oxygen ) Igneous rocks are Volcanic /or/ Extrusive -out of the ground  Lithosphere: is solid parts of the earth ( eg Rocks ) in trusive /or/ plutonic - inside the ground still  Hydrosphere: is all the water on planet earth ( both frozen or not ) magma time to cool it will grow crystals but if you rush it the crysatals will be very sm below the volcano is a chamber that holds all the magma the BATHOLITH  Cryosphere: is all the frozen water on planet earth lava flows up the VOLCANIC PIPE  Ecosphere: where the biosphere is interacting with the other 3 sphere. The ecosphere includes the biosohere but also the interaction between it and all other spheres DYKES AND SILLS  Technosphere - sum of industrial, technological and agricultural components of human activity SILLS go the same ways as these layers Dykes cut across them (in any angle or another)  External energy –sun- drives the hydrologic cycle and the circulation of atmosphere and ocean ; causes erosion of the land surface  Internal energy- natural radioactive decay -drives volcanism and lithosphere deformation; can cause a volcano to burst So BASSSLT IS A MAFIC ROCK FELSIC Rich in feldspar and quartz, White in colour  Layers defined by Physical properties : ( behaviour ) SLOW COOLING: BIG CRYSTALS FAST COOLING: SMALL CRYSTALS  Lithosphere - Solid, Rigid  athenophere - Solid, weak , ductile ( flowing ) GRANITE IS RICH IN SILICA, CONTINENTAL CRUST The gases can get out easily in small pockets so the volcanoe doesn't explode like crazy it erupts nice and slow  Mesosphere - Solid  outer core - liquid ( light stuff will go to the top ) Those types of volcanoes you generally find at HOT SPOTS they are SHIELD VOLCANOES  inner core - solid ( has a lot of ion ) Hard, air borne, eruptions, the normal ones Earth's = Atmosphere, Crust , Mantle, Core STRATOVOLCANO (aka composite cone) Pwaves-primary waves : can travel through liquids and solids PYRO (fire) CLASTICS (broken) -PYROCLASTICS -magma rock and hot gases that is broken up by the gases that come shooting down the hill 100kn/hr Swaves-secondary waves cannot travel through liquids The magma is INTERMIDIATE to FELLSIC  we know how big the liquid outer core is because of p and s waves Composite or strata volcano -made of pyroclastic debris and lava  P waves are faster S waves Active margin -Ex. West cost Canada  Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust  The earthquake waves travels faster in the oceanic crust than the continental crust Because there is a convergent boundary on the west coast while east coast has a divergent boundary  Continental crust = most common rock is Granite ○ Forces making tectonics work  Oceanic crust = most common rock is basalt ( heaver and darker ) Slab pull -gravity pulling that barrier into the mantle keeping it down  Mantle = is a rich in olivine Ridge push - a small force where the plates are diverging Mantle Plumes Inside the earth there are internal heat sources , Part from natural radioactive decay inside the and part of it is leftover from the formation of the earth  olivine + pyroxene = peridoitite rock which is found in the mantle FLOOD BASALT when you have a cut in the earth an enormous amounts of basalt start to flood out and can be km think francis Bacon (1551-1626)people were noticing that the coastlines looked like they may fit together Hazards of stratigraphic volcanoes: pyroclastic flow, lava flow, ballistic trajectory, toxic gas, ash, lahars Elie de Beaumount (1798-1874) said that overtime the earth is getting smaller because its temp is getting lower causing it to shrink Deposition is the depositing of rocks Hildenberg (1896-1976) said he disagress and that they did fit together but over time the earth is expanding and getting bigger Precipitated is when things come out the solution, hard solid precipitates  Inconsistency 1 - Close fit evidence Cemented: sticking sediments together Limestone - Often formed at coral reefs  Inconsistency 2 - Glacial evidence - where ice was before, it's not there now Compaction: more sediments piling ontop of other sediments, grains get squished together and compacted  Inconsistency 3 - Fossil evidence ( Eduard Suess ) - animals ( fossils ) were found in other parts of the countries where it didn't belong , resulting finding Cementation: something sticky cements the grains together, turning them from lose sediments into a rock fossils that were in Africa to be in south Africa LITOPHICATION: when a non rock is turned into a rock  Inconsistency 4 - Narrow mountain belts restricted to continental margins - mountain belts were on the edges on continental margins Clastic means broken - Like rocks that are pieces of other rocks Isostasy - a floating body replaces as much volume as corresponds to its weight Physical - Near surface fracturing, Frost and mineral wedging, Thermal expansion, Biological activity, Dissolution, Oxidation, Hydrolysis,  Force balance - weight is balanced by buoyancy Sorting: Something that is well sorted has only one sediment in it but something that is poorly sorted it has a lot of them. Often if something has been around for a  blocks of same weight but different densities have same volume below water while its most likely been sorted  Blocks of same density buy different height have same proportions above and below water  Inconsistency 5 - Isostasy of crust at two levels - oceanic and continental Non-clastic -percipitated by eater or deposited by organisms  Alfred Wagner ( 1880-1890 ) was a metrology and was also a balloonist, he told everyone that they were wrong about the earth all 5 Inconsistency Limestones (calcium carbonate) -Inorganic or animal remains  Wegner 1st hypothesis: he felt that continents drifted around the surface of the earth Halite and gypsum are evaporites Graded bedding - has larger sediments on the bottom, then medium, then smallest  Wegner 2nd hypothesis : Displacement across the Atlantic ocean happened in geologic time Plate techtonic settings: Extensional rifting. When the earth splits apart and then the trenches fill with sand because of the continent being eroded  evidence - matching coastlines and geologic structures  Pangea - is a super continents Metamorphic- DO NOT MELT Protolith: the source for a metamorphic rock Wegner 3rd hypothesis- Continents are still moving Arthur Holmes - suggested in 1931 that mantle convection could force continents towards or away from another FOLIATION: 3 dimensions - Minerals get quished and flattened- Lineation: when the minerals get stretched  Mid ocean ridges = upwelling or divergence Contact metamorphisms - when sediments come in to contact with an igneous rock  trenches - down welling or convergence Regional metamorphism -a large area gets metamorphosed all at once  Magnetic minerals - act like little compasses inside the rocks , a, magmatic rock cools below Curie temperature b, sediment grains orient themselves when contact metamorphism you get a rock called hornfels settling or new minerals grow Basalt and gabbro are protolyth  Magnetometer surveys of ocean floor identified patterns of anomalies on each side of MOR's . polar wander curves  apparent polar wander paths really show movement of continents Schistosity the process leading up to foliation CRATONIZATION: adding to the core continent, used to be separate but now being added on  Vine - Matthew - Morley hypothesis - magnetometer over MOR. found reversals working from Hess theories, they found the proof for seafloor spreading  Jack tuzo Wilson - the first Canadian geophysics graduate Hazard: any natural process that THREATENS human life or property; the process itself is not a hazard, rather it becomes a hazard only when threating human  he wanted to show at first the plate tectonic was wrong but he made it right. interests Risk: the probable severity that a destructive event will occur multiplied by the events likely impact on people and property; risk integrates hazards and social  one of his evidence that was sporting the idea of seafloor spreading was the idea of HOT SPOTS vulnerability  which is volcanoes forming above hot mantle upwelling. As well the age of the volcanic island are further support for the idea that the surface of earth is Disaster - an event that causes serious injury, loss of life and property damage over a limited time and within a specific geographic area ( ex scope can be regional , mobile national )  His next idea was the idea of describing Transform fault , Catastrophe - the same as disaster, expect that it is more massive and affects a larger number of people and more infrastructure than disaster ( ex consequences far  Tomography - is using heat flow measurements to map mantle structure and plumes ( the depth of the earth) beyond the area that is directly affected require huge expenditure of time and money for recovery ) Magnitude frequency concept- Shows us that really bad things don’t happen very often Lecture 3 Basalt = runny The Wilson Cycle Plate techtonics - Without plate techtonics the world would erode down to being flat and the world would be flooded by water Starts when a continent breaks up and the ocean starts to open 1.)Divergent 2.)Passive margin 3.) Active margin and plate begins to melt 1.) Divergent: two plates move apart (mid-ocean ridges, continent rips apart) Terrain Ecretion -How we add onto cont
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