Lecture 04 Notes Plant earth.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

Lecture 04 Notes Plant earth  Rock are simple naturally occurring aggregates of minerals  minerals are naturally occurring homogenous solid formed through geological processes  has a characteristic chemical composition  ( Normally ) has a highly ordered atomic structure ( Crystalline )  Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salt to very complex silicates with thousands of known form  Granite is used to make counter tops and is also a important rock  Basalt - has minerals  Rock forming minerals : silicates  they are structure is Quartz  How do we identify different minerals ?? ( Colour , Streak , Hardness , shapes )  3 types of rock igneous , sedimentary , metamorphic  to understand a rock need to know how its formed : Source , process, product  First group is ; source - Magma , process- freezes, product - igneous rocks  basaltic magma- ocean floor and rich in iron magnesium  aa is a blocky lava from cooler flows  Pahoehoe is ropy lava , from hotter flows  difference between lava and magma ??  lava is outside the earth and if its inside the earth it's called magma  igneous rock can be cooled in two ways which is , either at the Earth's surface ( extrusive ) or underground ( intrusive or plutonic )  underground = cools slowly and forms medium to coarse crystals ( big grained )  at surface - cools quickly and forms fine crystal( fine grained )  Batholth is a source of maga ,  volcano pipe that how it goes up  dike go across the layers  stills flow the rock layers that were there before  Mafic ( minerals containing m
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