Lecture 06 Notes Plant earth.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

Lecture 06 Notes Plant earth  Hazard - any natural process that threatens human life or property; the process itself is not a hazard, rather, it becomes a hazard only when threatening human interests  Risk - the probable severity that a destructive event will occur multiplied by the events likely impact on people and property; risk thus integrates hazard and social vulnerability  Disaster - an event that causes serious injury, loss of life and property damage over a limited time and within a specific geographic area ( ex scope can be regional , national )  Catastrophe - the same as disaster, expect that it is more massive and affects a larger number of people and more infrastructure than disaster ( ex consequences far beyond the area that is directly affected require huge expenditure of time and money for recovery )  Magnitude frequency concept - large disaster is uncommon, small hazard is frequent ( ex earthquakes )  explosively related to viscosity of magma, thus to composition of magma ( mafic vs. intermediate ) , plate tectonic setting , roughly viscosity increases with increasing silica content due to silica chains; also hear makes mega flow more easily  Low viscosity - ( thin like water ) magmas flow more rapidly and form lava flows that cover thousands of square kilometers ( e.g. basaltic magma at hot spots or MOR )  Low viscosity magma allow gases to easily, they are not violent eruption  High viscosity ( thick like honey ) lavas flow slowly and typically cover small areas ( e.g. rhyolite magma at subduction zone )  Gas pressures can build up in high viscosity magmas resulting in violent eruption  difference between lahars and parcastic flow  lahars - can happen any time , during a erptuion or anytime , they can anytime cooled or hot and also have mud flows  phratsic flow can only happen during a eruptions and has very hot gases  how can you monitor volcanoes ? ( seismic activity , gas output , heat flow , topography, mudflows, hydrology, satellites .)  Volcanoes are powered by plate tectonics ( convergent , Divergent ) and mantle convection
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