CHEAT SHEET Midterm.docx

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 1(Earth Systems): Biosphere: the living and dead organisms.Hydrosphere: Earths liquid and solid water (cryosphere). Atmosphere: Mixture of gasses (78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen).Lithosphere: The upper part of the solid earth.Ecosphere: when all the spheres interact with the biosphere. Components of Earth:Compositional Layers: Crust, Mantle, Core.Physical Layers:Lithosphere (solid, rigid), Asthenosphere (solid, weak), Mesosphere (solid), Liquid outer core, solid inner .Seismic Waves: P-waves (travel through liquids and solids) and S-waves (cannot travel through liquidsCrust: Oceanic (earthquakes are faster) and continental crust (thickGood and Bad Science: Good Science:1. Scientific explanations are tentative and can and do change (Changes occur, example Pluto). 2. Scientific explanations should be predictable and testable (example is weather). 3. Scientific explanations are based on observations or experiments and are reproducible. (Glaciers going back to them)4. A valid scientific hypotheses offer a well-defined natural cause o mechanism to explain a natural event. (Hypothesis is backed up like the ozone layer and atmosphere)Bad Science:1.An attack on scientist, not science (scientists fabricating data to support their hypotheses). 2. People who argue from authority (being powerful does not make him or her right). 3. Confusion over cause and effect (it happened after, so it was caused by, example lucky shirt). 4. The use of bad statistics (bad data collection or biased survey or response). Lecture 2(Plate Tectonics): False theories are the Contracting and Expanding earth.Isostasy:a general equilibrium of the forces tending to elevate or depress the earth's cruAlfred Wegener: 1. he felt that continents drifted around the surface of the earth. 2. Displacement across the Atlantic Ocean happened in geologic time (jigsaw puzzle). 3. Continents are still moving (Pacific closing ocean is old, deep, more mafic and Atlantic is spreading, young and shallower). Supercontinent Pangea: made of Laurasia (North America and Europe) and Gondwana (The rest south). Mid-ocean Ridges: upwelling or divergence and have high heat flow (only have shallow earthquakes). Trenches: down welling or convergence.Sea floor spreading (Harold Hess): New crust forms in the middle of mid oceanic ridges and the old gets recycled in the trenches which feed it back into the mantle where it is meltJack Tuzo Wilson: Hot Spots:volcanoes forming above hot mantle upwelling (stationary mantle plumes that burn through the lithosphere, example is Hawaiian IslandPlate Tectonics: Earth is divided into mechanical layers; outer layer is rigid lithosphere which floats atop plastic asthenos3 types of Boundaries: Convergent: Two plates move toward one another. A typical result is that one plate slides under the other.(Ocean and continent produce dangerous volcanoes called volcanic arcs. Ocean and Ocean have normal volcanoes like in Hawaii so volcanic islands. Continent and continent (obduction) produce huge mountain ridges).Divergent:two plates move apart relative to one another, in most cases magma fill the space between the plates.Transform:two plates move horizontally past one another (San Andreas Fault). Lecture 3(Minerals and Igneous Rocks): Main Minerals: Quartz: Sillicates, Tectosillicates, common in all types of rocks. Feldspars: Sillicates, Tectosillicates, common in all types of rocks. Mica’s: Sillicates, phyllosillicates, common in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Calcite: Carbonates, common in sedimentary rocks. How to identify Minerals:Color, Streak (silicates do not streak), Hardness, and Crystal Shape. Igneous Rocks: Source: Magma, Process: Freezes, Product: igneous rocks.2 Lava: A’a: is blocky lava, from cooler flows. Pahoehoe: is ropy lava, from hotter flows.2 Cooling Processes: Intrusive (cool underground, cool slowly and form coarse crystals) andExtrusive (cool at the earth’s surface, cools quickly and form fine crystals).Dyke: Cut across layers of rock. Sils: follow same way horizontally. Batholith: large mass of intrusive igneous rock believed to have solidified deep within the earth. Volcanic Pipe: allows flow of magma up to the top of the volcano. Igneous Rocks are classified by composition:Mafic (rich in magnesium and iron) or Felsic (rich in silica and light thingIgneous Rock Examples:Felsic Rocks (continental crust): Ryholite(fine grain)and Granite (coarse grain)Intermediate Rocks: Andesite (fine grain) and Diorite (coarse grainMafic Rocks (oceanic crust): Basalt (fine grain) and Gabbro (coarse grain)Shield Volcanoes/Hot Spots: hill shape, made of mafic, basaltic rock and magma, not explosive or dangerous (example is Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa or Hawaii islands).Composite/Stratovolcano/Subduction zones: Cone shape, made of lava and broken rocks, magma is felsic or intermediate and highly dangerous (example is Mt Rainier/Mt St Helens).Composition Density:Oceanic crust is mafic and is denser than continental crust which is felsic and light.Composition Viscosity: Felsic magma is sticky and has high viscosity, speed flow is slow and covers small areas but is very explosive, and Mafic Magmahas low viscosity and is flows fast and covers a lot of ground but it is not explosive.Ridge Push: where divergent boundaries are. Slab Pull: where trenches are at subduction zones. Lecture 4(Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks): Sedimentary Rocks: Source: Sediments, Process: deposited, precipitated, compacted and cemented with silica, Product: Sedimentary rocks.
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