EESA06 Final Exam Ch20 Summary + 40 MCQ/T or F

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTND2 CANADIAN EDITIONChapter 20 Geological History of CanadaChapter SummaryCanadas lengthy geologic history began more than 4 billion years ago when the North American craton began to form Many separate land masses were fused together by plate tectonics processes over several billion years to create a craton consisting of geologically distinct provinces Deformed rocks of the craton identify areas where land masses were sutured together and are termed orogens These ancient rocks of North America record repeated episodes of supercontinent formation and breakup and are exposed on the Canadian ShieldThe outermost margins of the North American craton have been buried by younger cover rocks These sedimentary rocks were deposited in extensive shallow seas intracratonic and foreland basins that covered parts of the craton when it was depressed by the weight of developing mountain ranges Most of Atlantic Canada originated as parts of other continents that were accreted onto the eastern seaboard of North America through repeated opening and closing of ancestral forms of the Atlantic Ocean Western Canada also formed by the accretion of many former land masses terranes onto North America as it slowly drifted westward after the opening of the modern Atlantic Ocean The Canadian Rockies record compression caused by these collisional events on the western margin Canadian sedimentary rocks contain a rich fossil record including some of the earliest animal fossils Ediacaran fauna and numerous species of dinosaur that roamed the swamps around inland seasThe most recent events in Canadas geologic history involve climate changes that saw the gradual cooling of warm climates and the repeated growth and decay of enormous ice sheets that covered almost all of Canada Many of the landscapes most familiar to Canadians are the product of glacial processes active during the past 2 million years Glacial erosion is responsible for the formation of steepwalled glacial troughs and fjords in mountainous areas streamlined landforms of the Canadian Shield and excavation of the Great Slave Great Bear and Great Lakes basins Glacial depositional features include drumlin fields hummocky moraine and extensive plains underlain by till and outwash that host productive aquifers Canadas geological history continues to evolve as landslides alter the form of mountains and valleys quickclays fail deltas develop EESA06 Page 1 of 7
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