EESA06 Final Exam Ch3 Summary + 40 MCQ/T or F

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTND2 CANADIAN EDITIONChapter 3 EarthquakesChapter SummaryEarthquakes usually occur when rocks break and move along a fault to release strain that has gradually built up in the rock Volcanic activity can also cause earthquakes Deep quakes may be caused by mineral transformationsSeismic waves move out from the earthquakes focus Body waves P waves and S waves move through Earths interior and surface waves Love and Rayleigh waves move on Earths surfaceSeismographs record seismic waves on seismograms which can be used to determine an earthquakes strength location and depth of focus Most earthquakes are shallowfocus quakes but some occur as deep as 670 kilometres below Earths surfaceThe time interval between first arrivals of P and S waves is used to determine the distance between the seismograph and the epicentre Three or more stations are needed to determine the location of earthquakesEarthquake intensity is determined by assessing damage and is measured on the modified Mercalli scaleEarthquake magnitude determined by the amplitude of seismic waves on a seismogram is measured on the Richter scale Moment magnitudes determined by field work are widely used today and often are larger than Richter magnitudesThe most noticeable effects of earthquakes are ground motion and displacement which destroy buildings and thereby injure or kill people fire landslides and tsunamis Aftershocks can continue to cause damage months after the main shockEarthquakes are generally distributed in belts The circum Pacific belt contains most of the worlds earthquakes Earthquakes also occur on the MediterraneanHimalayan belt the crest of EESA06 Page 1 of 8
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