EESA06 Final Exam Ch11 Summary + 40 MCQ/T or F

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTND2 CANADIAN EDITIONChapter 11 Geologic StructuresChapter SummaryTectonic forces result in deformation of the Earths crust Stress force per unit area is a measure of the tectonic force and confining pressure acting on bedrock Stress can be compressive tensional or shearing Strained changed in size or shape rock records past stresses usually as joints faults or foldsA geologic map shows the structural characteristics of a region Strike and dip symbols on geologic maps indicate the attitudes of inclined surfaces such as bedding planes The strike and dip of a bedding surface indicate the relationship between the inclined plane and a horizontal planeIf rock layers bend ductile behaviour rather than break they become folded Rock layers are folded into anticlines and synclines and recumbent folds If the hinge line of a fold is not horizontal the fold is plunging Older beds exposed in the core of a fold indicate an anticline whereas younger beds in the centre of the structure indicate a syncline In places where folded rock has been eroded to a plain an anticline can usually be distinguished from a syncline by whether the beds dip toward the centre syncline or away from the centre anticline Also the oldest rocks are found in the centre of an eroded anticline whereas the youngest rocks are found in the centre or core of a synclineFractures in rock are either joints or faults A joint indicates that movement has not occurred on either side of the fracture displaced rock along a fracture indicates a fault Dipslip faults are either normal or reverse depending on the motion of the hangingwall block relative to the footwall block The relative motion of the hanging wall is upward in a reverse fault and downward in a normal fault A reverse fault with a low angle of dip for the fault plane is a thrust fault Reverse faults accommodate horizontal shortening of the crust whereas normal faults accommodate horizontal stretching or extensionIn a strikeslip fault which can be either leftlateral or right lateral horizontal movement EESA06 Page 1 of 7
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