EESA06 Final Exam Ch4 Summary + 40 MCQ/T or F

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTND2 CANADIAN EDITIONChapter 4 The Earths InteriorChapter SummaryThe interior of Earth is studied indirectly by geophysicsa study of seismic waves gravity Earth magnetism and Earth heatSeismic reflection and seismic refraction can indicate the presence of boundaries between rock layersEarth is divided into three major unitsthe crust the mantle and the core The crust beneath oceans is 7 km thick and made of basalt on top of gabbro Continental crust is 30 to 50 km thick and consists of a crystalline basement of granite and gneiss and other rocks capped by sedimentary rocksThe Mohorovicic discontinuity separates the crust from the mantleThe mantle is a layer of solid rock 2900 km thick and is probably composed of an ultramafic rock such as peridotite Seismic waves show the mantle has a structure of concentric shells perhaps caused by pressure transformations of mineralsThe lithosphere which forms plates is made up of brittle crust and upper mantle It is 70 to 125 or more km thick and moves over the plastic asthenosphereThe asthenosphere lies below the lithosphere and may represent rock close to its melting point seismic waves slow down here It is probably the region of most magma generation and isostatic adjustmentSeismicwave shadow zones show the core has a radius of 3450 km and is divided into a liquid outer core and a solid inner core A core composition of mostly iron is suggested by Earths density the composition of meteorites and the existence of Earths magnetic fieldEESA06 Page 1 of 8
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