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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Geology and the EnvironmentWhat is Geology Geologythe study of earth Moving Continents 11 William SmithFather of English Geology first to publish a geological map12 William Loganfirst to systematically describe the geology of Canada Candian Crosssectiona hypothetical vertical slice thru the land 13 Alfred Wegenertheory of continental drift in 1912 The Origin of Continents and Oceans Pangeacontinents has previously been clustered together in a large land mass 14 J Tuzo Wilsonplate tectonics theory in the early 1970s Canadian Transform faultslargescale faults that offset the crust laterally but neither created nor destroyed material now recognized as a major plate boundary type Hot spotsactive volcanoes young volcanic islands stuck in the middle of the oceans Volcanic islands chains ex Hawaiian Islands resulted from a moving plate drifting over a stationary magma plume in the mantlesupport for plate tectonic theory Time and Geology Deep timevastly greater amounts of time more than hours years Midocean ridgea giant mountain range that lies under the ocean Earth is estimated to be at least 455 Ga years old What do Geoscientists Do 15 Exploration Geologistslooking for gold diamonds and other metals Geoscientistsexpand the scope and responsibilities of modern geologist into additional scientific fields Geochemistsworking in a ordered environment of the laboratory and use hightechnology equipment to analyze the chemistry of rocks or minerals Mineralogistsstudy minerals 16 Petrologistsstudy the makeup of rocks and how they form Geophysicistsusing hightech equipment in the field using boats planes or satellites to learn more of the nature of the physical conditions on or under the Earths surface Petroleumcoal geologistssearch for oil and gas and coal Seismologistsstudy how to measure and mitigate earthquake activity Paleontologiststudies the fossilized remains of ancient organismsGlacial Geologistsstudy landforms and sediments left behind by ice sheets glaciers Hydrogeologistsstudy and protect sediments that contain and transmit water 17 Environmental Geoscientistsfinding and managing drinking water dealing with a wide range of wastes ranging from radioactive waste to household municipal waste 18 Engineering Geologistswork with the challenges of engineering structures that form part of the human landscape landscape stability problems 19 Geomaticiancollect organize analyze and create images from any spatial and geographical data available in digital form What is the Scientific Method Scientific Methodthe process by which scientists first identify a problem then they select a methodology to collect data in order to help solve the problem then they analyze and interpret the information and come up with a hypothesis after several testform a theory Hypothesisa theoretical explanation where the geologist How did the Earth form Nebulaa cloud of gas and dust particles Bulbous coreflattened disccreated by gas and dust rotate and contract Sun created from a nuclear fusion Planetsdust in the outer disc condensed to form rocks and metals that combined to form large rounded planets and Planetismalsmuch smaller irregularly shaped planets Accretionthe process of building large bodies of matter thru collisions and gravitational attraction Terrestrial planets ex Mercury Venus Earth Marsform close to the sun small dense rocky Jovian planets ex Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptunelow density large further from sun What was the early earth likeDifferentiationprocess of zonation of different materials within a planet Heavier metals iron and nickel settle towards the center lighter metals silica and oxygen rise towards Earths surface 110 Meteoritessmall solid particles of rock metal and or iceorbiting the Sun 1 iron rare but look unique easily foundiron mixed with small amount of nickel 2stonyironironnickel alloy and silicate minerals in about equal parts 3stony meteorites most common look like earths rockssilicate minerals plagioclase olivine pyroxene and may contain small amount of ironnickel alloy90 are Chondritescontain round silicate grains aka chondrules 10 are Achondriteslack chondrules Carbonaceous chondritescomposed mostly of serpentine or pyroxene and contain up to 5 organic materials believed to have same composition as the original material from which the solar system was formedAchondritessimilar to terrestrial rocks in composition basalt and texture igneous rocks Internal Structure of the earthCorecomposed of iron alloy ironnickel silicon Mantlecomposed of FeMg silicates form a rock called peridotite Outer crustcomposed of lighter rocks such as basalt and graniteBasalta finegrained mafic igneous rock composed predominantly of ferromagnesian minerals and with lesser amounts of calcium rich plagioclase feldsparLithosphere plateslarge pieces of crust and uppermost rigid mantle broken from mantle convection Asthenospherethe weak layer more mobile Formation of the Early Atmosphere Outgassingwater and gaseous elements released during volcanic eruptions Early Life Forms Prokaryotes microorganisms earliest life forms preserved in the geological record Stromatolitesorganic structures grown by prokaryotes by trapping sediments What is the Earth System Earth Systema small part of the larger solar system but also has its own component parts or subsystems aka spheresinclude atmosphere gases hydrosphere waterbiosphereliving and geosphere rock or other inorganic Earth materials External energy sourcesun drives atmosphere and hydrosphere Internal energy sourcegeothermal heat radioactive decay of minerals with Earth drives plate movement volcanic eruptions and earthquakes Rock cycleconceptual model that links rockforming process that operate in Earths crust Magmamolten rock Igneouswhen magma solidifies Sedimentaryunconsolidated sediment becomes lithified cementedconsolidated into rock Metamorphicsubjected to heat and pressure if high enough temperature rock melts to become magma completing the cycle Chapter 2 Plate TectonicsWhat is Plate Tectonics Plate TectonicsEarths surface is divided into a few large thick plates that move slowly and change in size
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