Wind- Midterm Review.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

WIND EXAM REVIEWLECTURE 1 Greeks EurocentricWIND MYTHOLOGY Aeolus designated by Zeus to look after the four winds Zephyrusgentle west windBoreaschilly north windNotossouthern rain bringerEurusilltempered east breeze Within greek mythology Aeolus was designated by Zeus to look after four winds Boreas is a chilly north wind that originates in the NORTH and blows towards the SOUTH Gaia Hypothesismodifies the environment to best suit itself21 oxygen is optimum for lifeMars and Venus are in a static equilibrium with high levels of carbon dioxide and methaneWhy switch from anaerobic conditions to aerobic conditions 23 billion years agoEarly sun produced 30 less energy Archeanarly earth with high levels of methane and carbon dioxide had a strong greenhouse effect which lead to conditions warm enough for life year solar output increased and earth was becoming too warm the switch to aerobic life reduced the greenhouse gases CO2CH4 and cooled the planetWe now have considerably lower levels of CO2 in the atmosphere than the early earth Gaia Hypothesis postulates that the atmospheric constituents have been controlled by life tooptimize conditions for life BIOLOGIC CONTROLGeologic controlthe atmosphere is static NOT dynamico 23 billiong years of methane and carbon dioxide and after than oxygen stabilized into the environment at 21 BIOLOGIC CONTROLthe change from anaerobic to AEROBIC conditions ANTHROPOGENIC Decaying plants are not fully oxidizedand coverted to COAL AND OIL due to GEOLOGIC PRESSURE This has lead ot many of todays air quality problems smog acid rain global warming thth Coal IS THE FIRST anthropogenic modification of the atmosphereUS 19 and 20 century thand China 11 century to present day Modern dumping ground fossil fuels coal and other hydrocarbons acid rain urban air quality urban heat island global warming Air is made of GAS MAINLY liquid cloudand solid particulate matterGreenhouse gas atmospheric constituent that traps outgoing radiationWhat are examples of greenhouse gases water vapour carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide ozone and CFCs Greenhouse gas gases that intercept radiation and reradiate back to the earths surface which causes the earths surface to be warmer than it would be otherwiseEnhanced greenhouse gas effect anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases traps excess heatGLOBAL WARMING CLOUD NOMENCLATURE o Stratus layer cumulopuffy nimborain altomidcirrohighFOUR DISTINCT LAYERS IN THE ATMOSPHERE M SHAPE temperature decreases with height in alternating layers o Troposphere decreases 11 kmwell mixed vertically all weather conditions occur here 75 of the atmosphere temperature decreases with height o Stratosphere Increases 1150temperature increases with heightWHYconversion of incoming solar radiation to energy via a layer of ozoneo Mesosphere decreases 5085 o Thermosphereincreases 85incoming solar radiation is converted to KINETIC ENERGY via a layer of ozoneits COLDDENSE and a low transference of heat TemperaturethermometerPressurebarometerWind speedanemometerWind directionweather vanePrecipitation rainsnow gaugeHumidity hygrometerpsychrometero Hygrometer measure of humidity due the expansion or contraction of a particular fluid o Psychrometer which is based on wet and dry bulb temperature o Dry bulb tempterature ambient temperature o Wet bulb temp cooling of air due to evaporation until saturation occursRISIING AIR COOLS AND SINKING AIR WARMSthe cooling air leads to condensation and later cloud formation Windmovement of air in an ordered fashionwe cant see wind but we can feel itWhat causes wind to move Differences in air pressure vertical and horizontal pressure gradiento Pressure gradient force movement of wind from a HIGH TO LOW PRESSURECoriolis Force ficticious forcecaused by the rotation of the earths surfaceo Causes winds to deflect to the RIGHT in NORTHERN HEMISPHEREand LEFT in the SOUTHERN hemisphere o Gaspard Gustave de Corioliso STEEP pressure GRADIENT PG or closely spaced isobars indicate strong winds PGF and high winds o GEOSTROPHIC WINDS BALANCE between pressure gradient force and coriolis forceOccurs 1 km above the surface NO FRICTIONGLOBAL CIRCULATION there is more energy released from the POLES than is absosrbed from the sun and this works in REVERSE AS WELL and this is due to ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION
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