50 Pages

Environmental Science
Course Code
Tanzina Mohsin

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WIND EXAM REVIEWLECTURE 1 Greeks EurocentricWIND MYTHOLOGY Aeolus designated by Zeus to look after the four winds Zephyrusgentle west windBoreaschilly north windNotossouthern rain bringerEurusilltempered east breeze Within greek mythology Aeolus was designated by Zeus to look after four winds Boreas is a chilly north wind that originates in the NORTH and blows towards the SOUTH Gaia Hypothesismodifies the environment to best suit itself21 oxygen is optimum for lifeMars and Venus are in a static equilibrium with high levels of carbon dioxide and methaneWhy switch from anaerobic conditions to aerobic conditions 23 billion years agoEarly sun produced 30 less energy Archeanrly earth with high levels of methane and carbon dioxide had a strong greenhouse effect which lead to conditions warm enough for lifeaerobic life reduced the greenhouse gases CO2CH4 and cooled the planetWe now have considerably lower levels of CO2 in the atmosphere than the early earth Gaia Hypothesis postulates that the atmospheric constituents have been controlled by life tooptimize conditions for life BIOLOGIC CONTROLGeologic controlthe atmosphere is static NOT dynamico 23 billiong years of methane and carbon dioxide and after than oxygen stabilized into the environment at 21 BIOLOGIC CONTROLthe change from anaerobic to AEROBIC conditions ANTHROPOGENIC Decaying plants are not fully oxidizedand coverted to COAL AND OIL due to GEOLOGIC PRESSURE This has lead ot many of todays air quality problems smog acid rain global warming thth Coal IS THE FIRST anthropogenic modification of the atmosphereUS 19 and 20 century thand China 11 century to present day Modern dumping ground fossil fuels coal and other hydrocarbons acid rain urban air quality urban heat island global warming Air is made of GAS MAINLY liquid cloudand solid particulate matterGreenhouse gas atmospheric constituent that traps outgoing radiationWhat are examples of greenhouse gases water vapour carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide ozone and CFCs Greenhouse gas gases that intercept radiation and reradiate back to the earths surface which causes the earths surface to be warmer than it would be otherwiseEnhanced greenhouse gas effect anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases traps excess heatGLOBAL WARMING CLOUD NOMENCLATURE o Stratus layer cumulopuffy nimborain altomidcirrohighFOUR DISTINCT LAYERS IN THE ATMOSPHERE M SHAPE temperature decreases with height in alternating layers o Troposphere decreases 11 kmwell mixed vertically all weather conditions occur here 75 of the atmosphere temperature decreases with height o Stratosphere Increases 1150temperature increases with heightWHYconversion of incoming solar radiation to energy via a layer of ozoneo Mesosphere decreases 5085 o Thermosphereincreases 85incoming solar radiation is converted to KINETIC ENERGY via a layer of ozoneits COLDDENSE and a low transference of heat TemperaturethermometerPressurebarometerWind speedanemometerWind directionweather vanePrecipitation rainsnow gaugeHumidity hygrometerpsychrometero Hygrometer measure of humidity due the expansion or contraction of a particular fluid o Psychrometer which is based on wet and dry bulb temperature o Dry bulb tempterature ambient temperature o Wet bulb temp cooling of air due to evaporation until saturation occursRISIING AIR COOLS AND SINKING AIR WARMSthe cooling air leads to condensation and later cloud formation Windmovement of air in an ordered fashionwe cant see wind but we can feel itWhat causes wind to move Differences in air pressure vertical and horizontal pressure gradiento Pressure gradient force movement of wind from a HIGH TO LOW PRESSURECoriolis Force ficticious forcecaused by the rotation of the earths surfaceo Causes winds to deflect to the RIGHT in NORTHERN HEMISPHEREand LEFT in the SOUTHERN hemisphere o Gaspard Gustave de Corioliso STEEP pressure GRADIENT PG or closely spaced isobars indicate strong winds PGF and high winds o GEOSTROPHIC WINDS BALANCE between pressure gradient force and coriolis forceOccurs 1 km above the surface NO FRICTIONGLOBAL CIRCULATION there is more energy released from the POLES than is absosrbed from the sun and this works in REVERSE AS WELL and this is due to ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION ONE CELL THEORY onelarge overturning atmospheric cellair rises at the equator expands convergence moves towards the poles coolscondenses and sinks AT THE POLESat the surface the winds move equator ward once again ENERGY IS transported as SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT and latent heat transport occurs when warm air rises at the equatorcoolscondenses and sinks at the poles and by doing so RELEASES LATENT HEATThis theory is not realistic because it doesnt take into consideration coriolis force and land sea contraststilt etc Named AFTER GEORGE HADLEY SENSIBLE HEAT heat you can feel LATENT HEAT stored as water vapor examined through changes of stateo CONDENSATION HEAT IS RELEASEDo EVAPORATION HEAT IS ABSORBED HADLEY CELL air rises at the equatormoves poleward and sinks 30 degrees north and southFERRELL CELL air rises at the equator moves poleward and sinks 3060 degrees north and southPOLAR CELL air rises at the equator moves poleward and sinks 60 degrees north and southIntertropical Convergence Zone area of rising air at or near the equator and its located between the two Hadley cells in the northern and southern hemisphereo Occurs because of surface convergence on both sides of the equator TRADE WINDS between the equator and 30 degrees north the wind should flow to the SOUTH but instead it flows to the SOUTH WEST a surface component of THE HADLEY CELLo NORTH AND SOUTHEAST TRADEWINDSSUBTROPICAL HIGH subsiding air at 30 degree N and 30 degree S HORSE LATITIUDESbetween the WESTERLIES AND TRADE WINDSand corresponds to the descending branch of Hadley and Ferrell cellsWesterlies winds from 3060 degrees should flow NORTH but instead they flow NORTHEASTthe winds come from the westsurface component of the FERRELL CELLPOLAR EASTERLIES winds blowing from the EAST should flow SOUTHbut go SOUTH WEST INSTEAD due to deflection of the windssurface component of the POLAR CELL 60 degree north and southDoldrum region of little wind between NORTH and SOUTH trade winds Polar frontdivision between polar air and midlatitude airoccurs in the area between POLAR AND FERRELL CELLS where warm and cold air collideLandsea contrasts occur because the land has a LOWER HEAT CAPACITY than the water and can HEAT UP AND COOL DOWN MUCH MORE QUICKLYo In NH high pressures form over land and then the opposite occurs in the summerUPPER LEVEL WINDS ARE GEOSTROPHIC and are not affected by friction or LANDSEA CONTRASTJet Stream swift flowing current of air1015 km above the surface thousands of km longhundred of km wide and a few km thickdivisions between the three cells HADLEYFERRELL AND POLAR o Hadley and ferrell subtropical jet and Ferrell and polar polar jet
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