EESA10 midterm review.docx

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Semester
Winter

Description
Which event lead to governments changing policies - The London smog, they burned soft coal and it caused major air pollution What are the three sources of air pollution? - Human sources (stationary) - Human sources (mobile) - Natural sources What causes asthma and chronic bronchitis? - So2 (air pollution and smoking also play a role) What is pulmonary emphysema? - The weakening of the wall of the alveoli, they become enlarged and lose their resilience. What are three things caused by air pollution? - Birth defects - Heart disease - Eye irritation Is there primary and secondary outdoor air pollutants? - Yes, secondary is ground level ozone, primary is everything else( co2, NOx, SOx, VOC, lead, particulate matter) Are particles larger than 2.5 the most damaging to our lungs? - No, particles smaller than 2.5 are (PM2.5) List some qualities about CO2 - Colourless, odourless True or false, CO2 can be from car exhaust, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and water heaters? - True! What does CO2 do to the body? - It interferes with the delivery of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body. What are some of the symptoms? - Fatigue - Confusion - Weakness - Nausea - Death What forms in any type of combustion process? - NOx Does SOx and NOx help with the formation of acid rain? - Yes Where does NO x travel in the body? - Lungs, alveoli’s bronchi What is the cause of SOx? - Burning of coal, and oil, the extraction of metals from ore. Is it true that the throat gets damaged from SOx? - Yes What is ozone made of? - VOC + NO x + Heat + Sunlight = Ozone Is it usually a summer time pollutant? - Yes What is the difference between photochemical smog, and industrial smog? - Photochemical smog is from, combustion of engines, industrial fumes that react with the sun. Industrial smog is from the burning of coal, especially soft coal in a city. True or false, indoor air pollution contains 2-5 times higher concentration of hazardous pollutants than outdoor air - True What are the symptoms close to? - Flu symptoms What are the 6 common indoor air pollutants? - Radon gas - Formaldehyde - Asbestos - Mold and moisture - Second-hand smoke - Air dust What pollutant is made of 6 different fibrous minerals? - Asbestos True or false, asbestos are not stable even when they are not disturbed. - False, they are very stable until they are disturbed What does asbestos affect? - The membrane surrounding the lungs. Is formaldehyde a naturally occurring gas? - Yes, as well as a VOC What can it be found in? - Glue or adhesives in pressed wood - Preservatives in some paints - Certain insulation materials Where are common places for mold to accumulate? - Bathrooms, kitchens gym areas, damp basements What does mold produce? - Toxins, spores, irritants How many compounds does second-hand smoke produce? - 4000; 40 are carcinogens What are people at higher risk for? - Asthma, pneumonia, ear infection, and bronchitis in children What is radon gas, and how do humans get exposed? - Radioactive decay of uranium, it dissolves in ground water, then pumped into wells which humans use for homes - Also once the air is contaminated, it stays near the ground (its heavy) and toddlers and infants are at risk of exposure. What does the term withdrawal mean? - The total amount of water removed from rivers, lakes and aquifers for any purpose. Where is fresh water mostly stored? - Ice caps/glaciers and its not available How much freshwater is actually readily available? - 0.014% What are the difference between Canada and China’s fresh water use? - Canada mostly uses it for power plant cooling, while china mostly uses it for agriculture. What is hydrological poverty? - The lack of safe drinking water Why do we want to drink naturally pure water instead of distilled? - Because it has salts in it that gives us some benefits, and some taste What are the differences between confined and unconfined aquifers? - Confined are between two impermeable layers, and is less likely to get contaminated(water used for households) What are sources of contamination? - Pesticides, fert
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