midterm EESA10 notes (lectures 1 to 5).docx

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA10H3
Professor
Safieh Moghaddam
Semester
Summer

Description
ESSA10LectureonetofiveLectureonenotesYourenvironmentisyourhealthotherfactorsinfluencehealthaswellEnvironmentiseverythingthataffectsalivingorganismeverythingthatsurroundsyouEffectofenvironmentonhumanhealthisgreatairwatersoilbiotaandmanmadeenvironmentGeneticswillalsoimpactshealthAccordingtotheWHOInitsbroadestsenseenvironmentalhealthcomprisesthoseaspectsofhumanhealthdiseaseandinjuriesthataredeterminedorinfluencedbyfactorsintheenvironmentThisincludesthestudyofboththedirectandtheindirectpathologicaleffectsofvariouschemicalbiologicalphysicalandsocialagentssocialagentsincludehousingurbandevelopmentlanduseandtransportationthiscoursewillfocusonchemicalandbiologicalagentsTypesofhazardsincludeChemicalairwatersoilandfoodBiologicalbacteriavirusesparasitesallergensandanimalssocialunsafeworkconditionspoordietdrugsdrinkingdrivingandpovertyPhysicalradiationfiretornadohurricanevolcaniceruptionandearthquakeEnvironmentalcrisisHumanalterationofearthAtmospherecarbondioxideincreased30sincethebeginningoftheindustrialrevolutionrdGeosphere13toofthelandsurfacehasbeentransformedbyhumanactionduetourbanizationandagricultureBiospherehumanssharetheirecosystemwithotherlivingorganismswhichcanimpacthumanhealthIndustrializationistoblameforthechangesintheenvironmentItbeganwiththediscoveryoffirealthoughfiredidnothavethatgreatofanimpactontheenvironmentitledwaytotheindustrialrevolutionTheindustrialrevolutionmadesyntheticmaterialsandreleasedalargeamountofharmfulgasesintotheatmosphereOverpopulationandoverconsumptionwillalsoinfluencehumanhealthresourcesThisdiagramshowsthehealtheffectsofpollutiononanindividualMostorgansareaffectedbypollutionPollutionsincludeairpollutionwaterpollutionandsoilcontaminationThedeclininghealthofotherorganismsistheclearestindicatorofenvironmentalthreatstohumanhealthManyfactorscontributetotheglobaldeclinationoffrogamphibianspeciesThesefactorsincludeincreasedlevelsofUVRtracesoftoxicchemicalsinfectionsfungiandbacteriaandpredationWelookatotherorganismstoassesstheeffectsofenvironmentalfactorsonorganismsIfittheenvironmenthasnegativeimpactsontheseorganismsitmostlikelyhasanegativeimpactonhumansaswellInvitroitisdifficulttostudytheeffectsofatoxinontissuebecauseinrealityanorganismisexposedmultipletoxinsatoncecommonexposureinthegeneralpublicEnvironmentalhealthEnvironmentalfactorsresponsiblefor25ofallpreventablediseasesESSA10LectureonetofiveIndevelopingcountriesdiarrheacanbepreventedbydrinkinghealthywaterandrespiratoryinfectionsareheadingthelistRichpoorDevelopedanddevelopingcountriesAlthoughillnessessuchasdiarrheaandrespiratoryinfectionswerecommonindevelopingcountriestheillnesshavenowshiftedtowardsdiabetescancerandcardiovasculardiseasesAnexampleofonesuchcountrywouldbeChinaIncreasedincomechangeindietandchangeinlifestyleallowsforthetypeofdiseasespresentinthepopulationtochangeincreasedincidencesofdiabetesThistrendisalsoseeninNativeAmericanpopulationtheyhuntlesschangeinlifestyleandhaveincreasedincidencesofdiabetesthaninthepastProtectingtheenvironmenthasbeenamainstayofpublichealthpracticessince1878AfricanAmericansHispanicsandwhitesenvironmentaldiseasesaremorecommoninsomegroupsthaninothersracialandsocieconomicalPercentofAfricanAmericanHispanicandWhitepopulationslivinginairqualitynonattainmentareas1992TherednumbersshowhighestpollutantlevelsdetectedintheracialcategoriesAfricanAmericans15Hispanics45TheexplanationusedtodescribethedifferentlevelsofpollutantsfoundintheseracialcategorieswerethatthereweredifferencesinincomebetweenthesegroupsandthatduetotheincometheyhaddifferenthousingAlowerincomewouldmeancheaperhousingwhichhadanincreasednumberofpollutantsNewyorkcityAfricanAmericanHispanicandlowincomepopulationshavebeenfoundtohavehospitalizationanddeathratefromasthma35timeshigherthanthoseforallNewYorkCityresidenceTheSpeechLivingDownstreamisaboutacancersurvivornamedSandrawhoisalsoabiologistandanecologistSheappliedherpersonalexperienceintoherresearchShebelievesthatenvironmentalfactorsarerelatedtocancerincidencesSomeofheraudiencebelievewhatshessayingwiththeamountofevidenceshehasgivenhoweverothersrequireadditionalscientificresearchtobeconductedtoproofthattheenvironmenthasastrongimpactonhumanhealthTextbooknotesLifeSupportTheEnvironmentandHumanHealthpg161012Chapter1EnvironmentHealthandRiskEnvironmentimpactshumanhealththDuringthe20centuryhumanhealthhadimprovementsduetobetterwaterandfoodqualityreducedcrowdingimprovednutritioncentralheatersandmuchmoreTodaysomefactorswhichcontributetotheenvironmentalcrisisthatnegativelyimpacthumanhealthincludesglobalwarmingpopulationgrowthresourcedepletionandhabitatdestructionTheenvironmentalcrisisTheenvironmentalcrisisismainlyduetohumanactivitywhichnegativelyinfluencestheearthsatmosphereairgasessurroundingtheearthgeospheresolidportionofearthandbiosphereregionsoftheearthssurfaceoccupiedbylivingorganismsESSA10LectureonetofiveIthasbeenestimatedthataboutathirdorahalfoftheearthssurfacehasbeenalteredbyhumanswhichhasledtotheenvironmentalcrisisExampleswhichsupporttheenvironmentalcrisis30increaseinCOlevelsintheatmosphere2increasedatmosphericnitrogenfixedbyhumansmorethanhalfofthefreshwaterisusedbyhumansaquarterofbirdspecieshavegoneextinctThereisaglobaldeclineoffrogpopulationdecreasedhealthreproductivesuccessduetoincreasedintensityofUVraysincreasedpresenceoftoxicchemicalspredatorsandinfectionfromfungiandbacteriamostlikelyduetoacombinationforthefactorslistedaboveThenegativeimpactsoftheenvironmentontheseorganismsfrogsandbirdsindicatethattheenvironmentmostlikelyhasanegativeimpactonhumanhealthaswellhumansandanimalsarephysiologicallysimilarTheenvironmentaldegradationtodayismostlydrivenbypopulationgrowthandindustrializationTheworldsindustrialproductionisrapidlyincreasingx100SomeemissionsthatareeffectingtheenvironmentwhicharereleasedbyhumanactivityincludecarbondioxidemethanesulfurnitrogenleadcadmiumandzincHumanandEcosystemHealthEcosystemhealthhumansareparticipantsinacomplexecosystemandtheirpotentialforhealthisproportionaltothehealthfunctionoftheecosystemHealthandtheEnvironmentHealtheffectsduetoglobalchangeisusuallyindirectandhardtoassessexampletheincreasedlevelsofUVrayscausesincreasedincidencesofskincancerbutthishasnotbeenscientificallyassessedonagloballevelEnvironmentaldegradationexaggeratestheimbalancebetweenpopulationlevelsandresourcesIncrowdedandpoorcountrysidepeopleabandonthetraditionalandsustainablelanduseandtheypracticeshorttermsurvivalstrategiesExamplefarmingonasteepslopelivinginareasthreatenedbyfloodordroughtthisdestroysthelandandpeoplemoveontonewlandtocultivateHumanscausedeforestationwhichincreasessoilerosionfloodingmudslidesreducedagriculturalproductivityPovertypopulationgrowthandenvironmentaldegradationhasnegativeimpactsonhumanhealthScientistshouldbeawareoftheconsequencesofhumanactivityoftheenvironmentthestratosphericozoneholewasdiscoveredbyaccidentEventodaythereisnotenoughinformationgatheredonglobalamphibianpopulationdeclinecancerincidencesinfishandbleachingofthecoralreefsThepersistentorganicpollutantsPOPsistheidentificationofmedicalwasteasasignificantsourceoftoxicpollutionandtheemergenceofthehealtheffectsfieldofendocrinedisruptionblockingofhormoneactivityMedicalwasteburningisamajorsourceofdioxincausesreproductiveanddevelopmentalproblemsdamagetotheimmunesystemandcouldcausecancerandmercurynegativelyeffectsnervoussystemdigestivesystemimmunesystemlungskidneysskinandeyesChlorinatedhydrocarbonchemicalshavebeendetectedinthetissueofmosthumanspesticidesPCBsanddioxinEndocrinedisruptioncausesreproductiveandneurodevelopmentaldisturbancesIncreasedlifeexpectancyanddecreasedchildmortalityindicateincreasedqualityofhumanlife
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