EESA10 assignment 2.docx

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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

AWhat factors do yellow fever and malaria have in common 1 points Yellow fever and malaria are both considered transmissible diseases spread by a mosquito vector A vector is an organism that carries disease causing microorganisms from one host to another The disease causing microorganisms for both diseases are considered to be parasites and cannot be spread from person to person directly Yellow fever and malaria tend to be prevalent in areas with tropical or subtropical climate because the weather favors an abundant vector population thus increasing the chances of transmission of the disease WHOWhat factors are different in comparing the two diseases 2 points The primary difference between the two diseases is that yellow fever is recognized as a viral Flavivirus genus disease whereas malaria is recognized as a protozoan Plasmodium genus disease Yellow fever is spread by a single type of mosquito vector Aedes aegypti however malaria can be spread by several different types of Anopheles mosquito species Vaccines are available for immunization against yellow fever yet there is no effective vaccine available against malaria Furthermore treatments for both diseases are varied as well malaria treatment aims to cure a patient of the disease conversely there is no cure for yellow fever and treatment aims to alleviate the symptoms of the disease WHOBWhy are yellow fever and malaria not threats at present in North America 1 pointsYellow fever and malaria are vectorborne diseases and an abundant vector population contributes to high transmission rates Heat and humidity are the main factors favorable to vector population growth fortunately the cooler North American climate does not provide optimal conditions for vector population for long periods As the vector population is reduced the presence of yellow fever and malaria are directly impacted and reduced In Canada malaria disappeared at the end of the nineteenth century although in 1998 cases of locally transmitted malaria were reported in Toronto McCallyFurthermore the existence of effective public health programs prevents any major issues relating to yellow fever and malaria CWhy is malaria such a significant hazard in Africa 3 pointsAs mentioned earlier heat and humidity contribute to conditions conducive to outbreaks of vectorborne diseases The warm climate in Africa coupled with the humidity presents the perfect conditions for mosquitoes to thrive in increasing malaria transmission rates Changes in rainfall patterns create new bodies of standing water and mosquitoes only require a bit of water to reproduce Health costs associated with malaria include both personal and public expenditures on prevention and treatment however in Africa poverty and a poor health care system means people lack access to treatment and as a result die from malaria more frequently Finally heavy use of pesticides are increasing mosquito resistance to key insecticides such as DDT and pyrethroids particularly in Africa WHO coupled with a lack of alternative effective insecticides compounding the problemDWhy does the number of West Nile virus cases in people increase in warmer weather 1 points 1
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