Ch 2_

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Chapter 2: Urban and TransboundaryAir Pollution - Recognition of the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory illness dates back to the sixteenth century and description of respiratory disease in miners - Much of what we currently understand about environmental lung disease derives from the study of exposed workers since the Industrial Revolution - Later in the industrial nations of Europe and North America, whole communities were engulfed in air pollutants, resulting in serious illness and death among individuals with cardiopulmonary disease - These air pollution emergencies were caused by air stagnation, which resulted in greatly increased concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide and suspended particulates - After these air pollution problems, more attention has been placed on the health effects of air pollution. We face a crisis in worldwide air pollution today because of a few reasons. - First, since the atmosphere is dynamic and always changing, contaminants are transported (sometimes over thousands of miles), diluted, precipitated, and transformed. Air pollution therefore knows no boundaries or national borders - Second, many cities in developing nations and in Eastern Europe are experiencing uncontrolled industrial expansion, increasing motor vehicle numbers and congestion, and pollution caused by fuels used for cooking and heating - A 1988 study between air pollution and wealth reported that poorer countries (relying heavily on coal
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