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Environmental Science
Roberta Fulthorpe

Reading 1 Integrated Farming IF Vietnam Lester brown on healing the earthy Circle in integrated farming closed circle from growing chopping scooping and spreading to growing again y Ppl in Mekong Delta of Vietnam use every inch of land and water so nothing goes into wastey Each farm was different but shared a similar philosophy reducing expenses and increasing productivity by finding multiple uses for everything recycling all organic matter back into the farmIt y Integrated farming is a living system a set of dynamic relationships bw its many partsis fueled by manure considered waste in industrial farming and is thought to be a close system capable of continuing itself indefinitely with a few outside inputs w no waste y Green revolution after WWII had greater yields in developing countries but is unsustainable and unfair to small farmers It is a linear system heavily relying on external industrial resources y Integrated farming is not new especially in Southeast Asia One straw revolution by Japanese farmer Masanobu described it as the system emphasizing on recycling of human and animal waste It is joining animals crops and human beings into one body and returning the organic residues to the field y In its simplest form IF is a simple circle beginning and ending with grass or simple feed but is much more complex indeed y In one end and out the other in the farm all the operations buzzing around the courtyard y Cow manure biogas unit releases methane for cooking and manure to feed earthworms produce rich castings to improve soil and to make high protein food for chickens and fish Rich strawgrows expensive mushrooms and is also used as livestock bedding Fish tilapiacleans up water enriches water used to water and fertilize gardens in dry season y Cows digestive system four stomachs Ruminant digestion is complex and cows spend 8 hours a day ruminating mention the whole digestive system Chews grass bolus rumen fermentation it becomes cud which is partially digested bolusreticulum abomassum absorbs water and is a true stomach secretes gastric juices y Gift cow manure solid waste liquid waste bedding 7590 nutrients are not absorbed y Biogas unit feeds methane to the stove for cookingy Cow manure 50pounds a day used as fuel for cooking heating greenhouses mushroom cultivation biogas Mulch Skeet shooting and a new flooring made from solid fibers in cow manure y Earthworms play a major role Charles Darwin said that these lowly organized creatures played a really important role in the history of the world y Earth worms feed on decaying organic matter and make nutrients available to plants They also make a high protein feed for chickens and ducksy 3 types of Earthworms 1 Live below ground 2 dwell on topsoil 3 live in compost manure worms and can eat half their body weight in foodday y Of pond and pen travelling involves multiple modes of transportation y Goats manure is a source of proteins fats and carbohydrates for fish fish has simple digestive tract so they benefit from partially digested food y Coprophagia A term for animals eating manure not dangerous as bacteria in fish stomach neutralize most harmful agents but is the ultimate in recycling
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