TEST 4: EES C31
Oct 9, 2013
1. What happened close to the Columbia Glacier in Alaska in March 1989?
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: the oil tanker (Exxon Valdez) with full load of oil sailed through
Valdez Narrows, the captain changed his sea line in order to avoid icebergs from
Columbia Glacier, and it leaded to devastating oil spill.
2. How was the glacier involved?
It is because of retreating of Columbia Glacier in 1980s, large amount of icebergs
were released and floating on the sea. The icebergs related to Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
is one of the Columbia Glacier icebergs, wind and ocean current drove it to Valdez
Narrows and met Exxon Valdez.
3. How many glaciations in the last 3 million years?
4. What is a plume in a glaciomarine setting?
It is a current of turbid water which as a result of a large meltwater stream underneath
an ice entering a sea or an ocean.
5. Pock mark?
A crater created by vertical escape of gas or overpressure fluid water come up from
deep below the sea floor which triggered by ice bergs. The process creates a tube,
and then sediments fall in, a crater forms.
IRD refers to ice rafted debris. It is sediment which transported by floating ice and
released into water body.
It is a structure of sediments left by organisms, a trace fossil.
8. Shelf edge?
It is the boundary between continental shelf and continental slope, and it is also the
farthest line a glacier could expand to.
9. Leda Clay?
It is highly sensitive unconsolidated sediment that was deposited in the Champlain
Sea at the end of the last Ice Age. It is made of clay size particles but not make by
clay mineral, in other words, it soft as clay but non-cohesive.
10. What does ‘co-seismic’ mean?
The term used to describe earthquake triggered (event), being where earthquake