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Journal5


Department
Global Asia Studies
Course Code
GASA01H3
Professor
Liang Chen

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Journal 5: Akbars Policies that Helped Sustain the
Mughal Empire and Kubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty
Key Terms
Akbars Policies that Helped Sustain the Mughal Empire: Revenue demands were smaller
than under the Delhi sultans while Akbar ruled, and the large number of Hindus employed in the
revenue service helped to keep taxes from becoming exploitive or unfair. H indu law was applied
in disputes between Hindus. Revenue collectors were ordered to not to charge taxes in districts
that had had a poor harvest. One refor m that helped sustain the Mughal Empire was Akbars
abolition of two hated head taxes: on all Hindus as infidels (the Jizya) and on Hindu pilgrims
travelling to sacred sites. He abolished the enslaving of war prisoners and their families and
forbade forcible conversion to Islam, a bitter issue since the rule of the Delhi sultanate. Hindus
were welcome at court, and their advice was regularly sought.
Kubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty: Chinese officials were horrified when Kubilai refused to
reinstate the examination system, and preferred foreign advisors. The Chinese were discriminated
against and were forbidden to carr y weapons. Taxation was very heavy, and labourers were forces
to work on big state projects without pay. After Kubilai ascended the throne and until his death in
1294, Mongol rule from their new capital at Beijing loosened; butt they rebuilt the Grand Canal
and extended it to feed Beijing with forced labour, at a heavy cost in lives and revenue. Kubilai
was an able ruler of his new empire but concentrated on China and became almost entirely
Chinese culturally. Kubilai was followed on the t hrone by inferior rulers, and after 1310 there was
civil war.
Discussion Questions:
1)How should we evaluate the historical legacy of the Mongol Empire founded by Chinghis Kan and
its expansion?
2) What was the impact of the expansive reach of the Mongol empire on Eurasian trade?
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