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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Bunce

Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM Geography Exam Review Topic 1: Thinking geographically about globalization Ideologies and discourses of globalization Pro-globalization: good for the economy and therefore good for people. Increases trade and integration into the global economy, therefore encourages economic growth which will trickle down even to poorer countries. Anti-globalization: increases disparities, environmental degradation, reduces national sovereignty. Benefits of any global economic growth will trickle up to richer countries, financiers, global corporations. Alter-globalization: the idea that globalization can result in positive and negative outcomes depending on how its constructed, this would involve changing rather than dismantling globalization. Globalization as a set of political decisions and actions What does geography have to offer to the study of globalization? According to Murray, human geography offers a distinctive framework for studying globalization: 1. Its concern with space, spatial interaction and different scales of activity 2. Human geography peoples (humans, and societies) to discourses of globalization 3. Human geography is an eclectic subject- brings together cultural, environmental, economic, sociological, political aspects and methods of study. Six Concepts of Human Geography 1. Space Absolute space: space, just a container (with boundaries ad/or boarders) Properties that can define it as something e.g an empty classroom Functional space: space defined by the way its used Relative space: space in terms of meaning in relation to others e.g our perception of Japan Cognitive space: the way we experience,perceive and visualize spaces (mind maps) Metaphoric space: abstract, like the Internet, exists but without physical boarders Spatiality: how space is produced and reproduced e.g Dubai as a centre of capital and finance 2. Place space with meaning to you, based on attachment, or what it means to you e.g your home Uniqueness and identity- distinct characteristics that differentiate different places Interconnection of places- most places dont exist in insolation, they interact with other places Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM Region Formal: e.g political units such as provinces Functional: regions defined according to their main activities, e.g tourist regions Cultural: regions defined according to cultural characteristics like religion or language 3. Location (of activities) Spatial distribution of activities, population and resources Proximity and Distance: local/global Time space compression: ability to move capital Proximity and distance is socially created 4. Spatial Scale Hierarchies of sales- from the body to the world Connections between scales- local places connected to larger scale through exchanges of g/s 5. Spatial interaction Flow of g/s, information, and people across space Interaction between places is the most powerful process of globalization Time space convergence as a result of globalization 6. Human/Environment Relations Physical environment as resources and constraint Global scale processes as environmental problem Humans has disrupted the scale (overpopulation) Physical environment regulates human behaviour Relational Thinking How we perceive the rest of the world How we think about our place in the world Local decisions, global consequences Topic 2: The Changing Global Context Key concepts Colonialism: the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate state Imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories Fordism: division of labour into different tasks (first half of the 20th C) Post fordism: decline of the factory, vertical integration, JIT and less importance on location Early Roots of globalization (Expansionist civilizations) Key feature: movement of goods and people-expansionary Greek and Roman Empire Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM long-distance exploration innovation and trade war and conquest Mapping (newly discovered territories): important for global activity Land clearance and irrigation: increased food supply, and control of the physical env. First cities: urban civilization became the foundation of modern day civilization, new spatiality Islamic Empire (7th-13th C) Based on trade more than expansion (religious, not territorial expansion) Early global economy based on trade across Asia, Africa and much of Europe Rise of Global Capitalism (end of 15th C) In ancient societies authority, power and the acquisition of territory were the forces of globalization Economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production (private property), and the exploitation of the surplus values of land (resources) and labour. Acc. Sachs western European capitalist societies have 4 features 1. Economic: economic activities were predominantly organized via market exchange, based on private property relations in labour, capital, land and ideas 2. Political: based on notions of citizenship and the rule of law 3. Social: abandoned formal structures of hierarchy based on birthright 4. Belief: increasingly secularized and grounded in a modern scientific outlook WWI shattered global capitalist system based on European imperialism hyperinflation linked to the Gold standard By the 1990s almost all of the world had adopted the fundamental elements of a market economy private ownership at the core of the economy a currency convertible for international trade shared standards for commercial transactions market based transactions for the bulk of the productive sectors of the economy Ages (Stages) of Global Capitalism 1. Age of Exploration (15th-19th C)- discovery, encounter and conquest by European countries New lands, colonization, exploitation of resources, trade in commodities (gold, sugar) 2. Age of Enlightenment (15th- 18th C) Intellectual and artistic liberation Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM Scientific invention and discovery New philosophies e.g human relations with nature New technologies More exploration and trade This era was not very enlightened because: Slavery and indentured labour (the first great global diaspora) Destruction of indigenous civilizations by war and European diseases Imposition of European culture and political systems Displacement of subsistent agriculture by commercial plantations (space) Resource degradation- deforestation, soil erosion 3. Age of Empires (18th-20th C)/ The Great Global Carve Up Establishment of the British (French, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish) colonial empires and followed by the American empire in the late 19th C European powers had a lot of control over much of the world (and its resources) Provided raw materials and capital for the growth of the European industrial system Foundation of industrialism (access to labour, resources and landed) Age of Industrialism (18th + 19th C) Age of capital; the first IR Exchange (market) economy New labour markets: growth in demand for industrial workers Massive increase in capital investment New sources of energy - steam power, led to new locations for manufacturing based on best sites in relation to sources of coal. Global sourcing of raw materials and labour New modes of transportation led to new patterns of spatial interaction Urbanization - new centers of commerce and industry. New spatialities, i.e. newly constructed and produced spaces of industrialism Social and Environmental consequences The development of cities changed peoples relationship with the environment. We were no longer drawing from the land directly People became a part of the exchange economy (no connection to the land) Transformed human-nature relations: Rural to urban migration separated people from direct relationships with land and natural resources Environmental degradation: pollution, deforestation, soil erosion, urban health problems Exploitation of labour the core of industrial capitalism and the factory system Socio-economic disparity between owners of capital and the workers (proletariat). Led to social and political unrest and ultimately revolution in Russia Second Industrial Revolution (first half of the 20th C) Mass production
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