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Final

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Department
Geography
Course
GGRA03H3
Professor
Andre Sorensen
Semester
Winter

Description
Which is not a competing theory of competing origin: a) Hydraulic theory b) Informal theory c) Economic theory d) Military theory e) Religious theory List four fundamental characteristics of cities? What are four main changes in cities during the industrial revolution? Answers: Technology, Urbanization, Expansion of urban markets, increasing role of capitalism What are technological solutions to the urban crisis? Sewers, electricity What are four characteristics of the urban revolution? Massive urban population growth, mega cities and mega cities regions, rapid economic growth, increased role of a service sector Why was there a huge increase in garbage production? Consumption increased, population increased, packaging increased (plastic) What are rain run off pollutants? What is in our waste system? What are two reasons why technology has changed dumping? What is involuntary clustering?  Clustering in a city may be seen an involuntary clustering What is voluntary clustering?  Voluntary is when someone want to move to a clustered area to possibly be close to other aspects of every day life- groceries, public transit, amenities What is Urban Sprawl?  Lower density development (possibly unplanned) at the urban fringe than in the existing city  Unplanned development- hazard development- no water supply of regulations o Automobile dependent urbanization o Leapfrog patterns of development with lots of undeveloped space, separated land used  CAUSE: rapid urbanization, weak development regulations, no planning, high mobility provided by automobiles dominance, and a minimum of public open space  Sprawl is primarily a consequence of rapid urbanization and weak development regulations combined with high mobility with cars and trucks Major Arguments against sprawl?  High costs  Auto Dependence  Energy intensity  Loss of community  Criticism of urban form  Environmental damage  Health issues  Municipal fragmentation High costs of Sprawl:  High costs of sprawl is one the biggest problems  Costs of homes in a remote area are much higher- but housing will be cheaper  Public costs- schools, hospitals, roads, emergency services- much higher- who pays these costs- public or private  Higher social costs are not the developers concern  Local governments get stuck with the bill (taxpayers)  Taxes go up, congestion, more services- becomes a huge political battle to regulate growth Car Dependence with Urban Sprawl:  In remote neighbourhoods, you must have a car to get to the local amenities  No sidewalks, self- reinforcing cycle- makes environmentally friendly options less viable- walking, biking, transit Less “community”  Sprawl makes it harder for communities to be a community o Can contribute to social polarization, segregation, exclusion Health Issues associated with sprawl:  Obesity- no ability to walk anywhere- car dependent  Traffic accident
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