Which is not a competing theory of competing origin:
a) Hydraulic theory
b) Informal theory
c) Economic theory
d) Military theory
e) Religious theory
List four fundamental characteristics of cities?
What are four main changes in cities during the industrial revolution?
Answers: Technology, Urbanization, Expansion of urban markets, increasing role of capitalism
What are technological solutions to the urban crisis?
What are four characteristics of the urban revolution?
Massive urban population growth, mega cities and mega cities regions, rapid economic growth,
increased role of a service sector
Why was there a huge increase in garbage production?
Consumption increased, population increased, packaging increased (plastic)
What are rain run off pollutants?
What is in our waste system?
What are two reasons why technology has changed dumping?
What is involuntary clustering?
Clustering in a city may be seen an involuntary clustering
What is voluntary clustering?
Voluntary is when someone want to move to a clustered area to possibly be close to
other aspects of every day life- groceries, public transit, amenities
What is Urban Sprawl?
Lower density development (possibly unplanned) at the urban fringe than in the existing
Unplanned development- hazard development- no water supply of regulations
o Automobile dependent urbanization
o Leapfrog patterns of development with lots of undeveloped space, separated
land used CAUSE: rapid urbanization, weak development regulations, no planning, high mobility
provided by automobiles dominance, and a minimum of public open space
Sprawl is primarily a consequence of rapid urbanization and weak development
regulations combined with high mobility with cars and trucks
Major Arguments against sprawl?
Loss of community
Criticism of urban form
High costs of Sprawl:
High costs of sprawl is one the biggest problems
Costs of homes in a remote area are much higher- but housing will be cheaper
Public costs- schools, hospitals, roads, emergency services- much higher- who pays
these costs- public or private
Higher social costs are not the developers concern
Local governments get stuck with the bill (taxpayers)
Taxes go up, congestion, more services- becomes a huge political battle to regulate
Car Dependence with Urban Sprawl:
In remote neighbourhoods, you must have a car to get to the local amenities
No sidewalks, self- reinforcing cycle- makes environmentally friendly options less
viable- walking, biking, transit
Sprawl makes it harder for communities to be a community
o Can contribute to social polarization, segregation, exclusion
Health Issues associated with sprawl:
Obesity- no ability to walk anywhere- car dependent