GGRA03 Notes - all lectures besides 6, 8, 10, 11.docx

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Andre Sorensen

1 GGRA03 Notes Lecture 1 – Introduction Cities and the Human Environment - Cities are part of the global environment o Getting more and more important - People have changed how the world works - ‘anthropo’ – geological age of humans (“anthropocene”) - Change – not climate, but human actions - We create problems and solve using science o Modernist approach (toilets, drinking water, etc.) o Scale is vast - Urbanization lasts 20 years – disaster o Ideas are now changing - Next 20-30 years – another 3 billion people living in cities - Next 20, 40, 50 – 75-80% urban - Doubling of world’s urbanization o Extraordinary movement in history - Cities are complex, dynamic – human ecosystem o Understand ownself and decisions o Studying people - People are constantly changing - Cities embody everything we have ever done - Studying decisions and results - We don’t know much Cities as Human Environments - How geography has changed over time Understanding Long-Term Patterns - Influence city in profound ways - Little pieces of change - Understand historical processes of urban planning o Rules, patterns (hard and expensive to change) - Mistakes have been made even with careful planning - Understand in order to make change - Look atsets of given rules o Make changes to rules to make things work Cities are Path Dependent - Pay as you go system o Money coming in this year goes out next year (ex. retiring) 2 o A system that is self reinforcing o System that does not want change – if there is change, the value will decrease - Rules that ensure urban property is valuable - Urban government systems o Detroit, Baltimore, Cleveland – Wastelands in USA o Demolishing houses, abandonment - USA – very easy to create municipal government - Canada – never allowed them - Suburbs are a part of urban areas - Different simple rules Patterns of Urban Change - Constant, but structured - Why? Why is there change? Resistance to change? Reading Cities as Text, City Codes - What lead to this? - more exceptional - Who has power/wealth? –winners/losers (homeless) - You better be careful – for place to live – cool/uncool Cities Communicate Value Systems - What defines what in a neighbourhood? o Economic processes o Political choices (elites say “…” $$$) - Movements – economic, environmental, social - Memories are embodied in physical environments - Learning to make up stories o Inscribing stories to places Cities as Repetitive Patterns - Rules are not random - Endless replication of standardized codes o Insurance rules o Public activities o Results of decisions Major Environmental Issues - Massive growth of poverty - Increasing % issue o 98% polarization of income - Rapidly more unequal after 70s (opposite from before) - Social and spacial polarization - Rich increase, poor increase - Prevent worst catastrophical event 3 - Resilient cities - The way we govern ourselves - Building on unstable ground o Political process to prevent o Poor people build homes on vulnerable places Lecture 2 – Urban Environments in History Why is History Important? - Knowledge of historical events and (long term) patterns - Timing, approaches - Ex. Lucca, Italy – houses were built on existing foundation - Various changes, codes – making things how they are today Key Concept 1 - Most things are a collaboration of existing things – chains - Evidence of past decisions - Solving problems - Ex. Decent public transit? How to pay? - Put ‘why’ questions in essays to make it more interesting (shows ideas) When, Where, and Why did Cities Emerge? - Urbanization is important - Like saying ‘why did civilization emerge?’ Hydraulic Theory - One of the earliest theories - Control over (the very precious) water - Centralized political figure – to build system and protect it (government authority) - Early cities were built near rivers Economic Theory - Trading cities (Venetians) - Favoured production of wealth in cities Military Theories - Military was ultimate reason for cities - Secure territory – fort - Bastilles inFrance Religious Theories - Many cities are established and then grown into religious places 4 Political Capitals - Some cities were created to be capitals Key Concept 2 - Diversity of origins and systems Fundamental Characteristics of Cities - Cities allowed specialization – different jobs - Controlling –people who do not grow food will have something to eat - Course of authority Fundamental Characteristics of Cities – Kostoff a. Energized Crowding – density, numbers (cities are concentration of people, buildings, wealth) b. Cities come in clusters c. Boundaries – physical circumscription – in and outside (some edge/wall surrounding cities) d. Specialized differentiation of work (cities are differentiated into different clusters) e. A source of income f. Written records – particularly of accounts and property g. A productive hinterland h. Monumental public buildings – identity and authority (structure, shape, understanding of the city) i. Buildings and people Key Concept 3 - Cities share common qualities, but they are very different - Early decisions largely influence the future, patterns of change - Differentiation over space - What accounts for differentiation in space - Geography pulls together many key processes through the lens of how it shapes space - Much more specialized Urban For Characteristics of Cities - Activities people do in buildings, streets, and also the flow Urban Form – Walls - Defense against outside forces - Control on urban population – enter and exit - Taxes at the gate - Controlling flow - Urban/rural differences - Suburbs – things unwanted from urban 5 Urban Form – Streets - Markets, sewers, a place to toss garbage, ceremonies, parades, military, etc. o Now for cars - 1890s streets were very empty – people, bikes, horse carriages, streetcars - Require public authority Urban Form – Public and Private - Ex. Rebuilding places – some want fixture, others want to move Public Space - Functions: Mobility, Markets, Encounters, Ceremonies, Spectacles, executions, etc - Civic life Urban Form – Infrastructure - Physical patterns of cities o Impacts long term form/pattern - Create/demand institutional capacity to maintain infrastructure - Idea of value Key Concept 4 - Urban form is the study of the spatial arrangement of cities City/Nature - Cities always relate to parts that are not urban and depend on them - City conquering nature o Destroying wildlife (ex. European) Rome/China/Japan - Empire of a vast territory - Different relationship – city/country Medieval Europe - After dark ages - City-states - Cities are centres of merchant power - City charters, corporations – self-governed - Businesses with various owners – create assets o Development of corporations and capitalism o Citizenship and freedom – creation of cities in medieval 6 Key Concept 5 - Conceptual separation of City and Country/Nature is an oversimplification - Complex relationship - Lower transport costs - Basing points for active capital Key Concept 6 - Toronto shows clearly one way that the rural hinterland shapes and structures patterns of urbanization o Patterns of land ownership o Patterns of rural roads o Patterns of settlement Lecture 3 – The Industrial City and Policy Responses Industrial Revolution 4 main changes: - Technology and productive capacity, new energy sources, increased wealth - Urbanization – rural to urban migration, much larger city populations - Increasing role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs - Expansion of global markets and competition Transformation of Production - Price of iron and steel dropped - Belgium, France, Germany, United States – following the United Kingdom Transformative Technologies - Railways were the largest investment at the time – it opened areas up, and extended/created markets - 1850s – globalization – integration of globe Urbanization - Growth of production - Lots of people going back to work in factories - Factories recruiting migrant workers o Paid only enough to survive Emergence of Capitalism - Creating larger pools of capital (from profitability) Key Concept 1 - The Industrial Revolution Transformed Society, especially Cities - City changed drastically o Much less poor people before Industrial Revolution 7 - Expansion - Role of gold- gold discoveries Urban Crisis - Key social/economic/political issue in Europe - Poverty – wages were continually being bid down, no contracts at work, no help when accidents happened th - Housing – got worst over the period of the 19 Century, no system to build affordable housing for working class people, overcrowding - Water supply – from wells, no sewers, wells became polluted - Cholera Social Changes - Old systems were abandoned, but there was no new system Crisis and Reform - Genesis of competing ideas Key Concept 2 - New kind of living environment, new concentration of poverty, terrible living conditions, insecurity - Fear of ruling class o People would overthrow - What to do with the urban crisis Towards the Planned City - Cities were becoming threatening - Death rates were higher than birth rates in cities The Appeal of Planning Political Problem th - 19 century – who could you convince? - Paid more taxes = more votes (municipal governments) - Municipal leaders usually had large properties - Local governments had little power – low revenue - No restrictions of what private enterprises can do Changing Understanding of City Environment - See cities as artificial o Rules - Free trade – regulation and government regulation needed 8 Responses to the 19 Century Urban Crisis - Three main responses: The Utopians, The paternalists, Garden Cities - The civic reformers (good governance, town planning, architecture, hygiene and sanitation movements, housing reformers) - Each contributed ideas Utopian Socialist Solution - Utopian thinkers saw the urban crisis as a change fundamental aspects of social organization Paternalist Responses - Industrialists built new town o Making sure that workers were health o Mostly for skilled workers Civic Reform - Dominant tradition in Toronot - Wanted the city to work well - Very involved with finding solutions - Better services - System continues - Putting legal restrictions on properties Urban Reform Movements - Business lead The Birth of Planning - After completion of large change, water and school would become very cheap afterwards o Even poor people would be able to afford - Idea of efficiency - Improvement for worker’s health Changing Ideas of Urban Environments - Increasing agreement that city space must be carefully managed to prevent environmental and health disasters Key Concept 3 - Urban Reform - The key change was a linking of an analysis of a grave problem the urban crisis – with a set of achievable solutions – at a moment of political necessity - Allows continued growth 9 Water Supply - Not hard, but large investment - Ways of filtering for drinking Sewers - Lakes/rivers became polluted - High capital cost Housing - Bad housing, overcrowding, no water, air, toilets - 19 century – ½ people could not afford, 20 – ⅓ could not afford, now – 10%, 15% Key Concept 4 - Public Infrastructure and Housing Growth of Toronto - Toronto was still quite small in 1900 - Largely contained within the pre-amalgamation City of Toronto area Suburban Growth – 1921 - City grew in chunks Streetcar City 1890-1950 - Refused to expand outwards Toronto in the 19 Century - The influence of streetcars Lecture 4 – Modernity and Utopias: The Garden City and Radiant City - Thinking about a city and what a good environment is Urban Crisis - Rely on created new technology - Social/government – more influence, municipal services Modernity th - 19 century dominant - Period of optimism for the future, despite terrible conditions - Period of new inventions – technological advances – development of electricity 1890s-1930s (Great Depression) - Idea of progress 10 Modernity and Europe - “Europe was better than everyone in the world” o Maintain superiority (progress and civilization) - Bringing civilization - Orientalism, a stereotypical idea of west by Europeans that they were undeveloped Modernity and the City - Powerful ideology of how to fix problems - New rational approach to solve problem - Impact of poor living conditions on middle class - So much wealth produced – why poor conditions? - Fear of disease (1840) - Understanding of germs, not just bad environment - “If you could build a better city, you could provide others with inexpensive water” Key Concept 1 - Modernity – contrast tradition - Progress, future Utopia - Utopia thinking – a recurring way of thinking about how to fix cities - More prominent in hard times The City as a Vehicle for Utopia - Thinking about alternative arrangements of society, economy, class, and family Thomas More – Utopia 1516 - Book, finding utopia, describes the ‘perfect’ town’s arrangement and design in great detail Dystopia - The reverse of Utopia - Looking at current problems and projecting them o If we continue to do this, it will get worst The Uses of Utopia and Dystopia - To imagine a different possible future that is political o Critiquing poor cities - Promoting built form of solution to urban problems 11 Key Concept 2 - Utopias, Dystopias and the City - A utopia is a vision or a proposal for an ideal society - Unified design – ideal city The Garden City - Looks utopia, but is not really - Economic proposal o Different kind of city o Influential on future cities o Parks, greenbelts - Having unified development agent Howard’s Concept - Ebenezer Howard’s published book o When crisis can be solved privately – you invest money and get limited return o We can do this ourselves o Buying land, build houses for rent, build city, land value would rise
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