GGRB02 – Midterm Exam Review Sheet
Midterm Exam (Worth 30% of total grade)
Total points for midterm exam = 30 points (i.e. 5 Concepts=10 points + 4 Short
The midterm for the course will be held between 1:10pm-3:00pm on Tuesday,
February 28 in class and it is a closed book exam.
Define five concepts: 10 points
Note that you will not have a choice here. Each definition is worth 2 points (5
concepts x 2 points =10 points). Define concepts precisely in 2-3 sentences.
1. Relational view of space;
Common aspect they share is space is not given: Relational view of space –
space is not container; space is constructed
3. Sense of place ; yi-fu tuan, the humanistic way of thnking about the space.
Where we can relate to it at the scale by human body.different places have
different personalities.it is the : position in society (status) and spatial
• Fields of care (sense of place): no visual markers yet create place . Meaning
– Spirit and personality: awe and affection
– Sense of place: only humans have this; visual aspect but other senses
too (smell, touch long association)
• Public symbols (Spirit and personality): create place , can transcend
• Fields of care (sense of place): no visual markers yet create place
4. Historical materialism ;
5. First nature/ Second nature; ; when ppl strted usuig natur inrdr 2 meet their
nedes dey r depended up on nature, god gvn which is un affected by humans. nd
(table was made by pp, goinfg 2 forst directly where as; wt v hv now is 2
natur. How our forsts r now r 2 nature. Made into plantaion. V cnt find a
nature uneffected by ppl. 2 nd nature is produced 2 make more n more
exchannge values, where as 1 nature is produced 2 make use values.
6. Use value/ exchange value; THE WAY HW OBJECT IS USED, ATTRIbUTES F
THE OBJECTS. Ppl were primary concern abt value. Use value f the chair is 1
cn sit on it. exchng value= more n more profit!! Nw trasfming natur in ordr 2
meet exchnage value. Money v cn gt inj exchange . Chair , i cn sit also i cn sell
in to mnwy. V r transfrming nature mostly in ordr 2 gt exchange value=
profit. Used value is suordinated for exchange value 7. Oil and its effects on community ; from our kitchen cooking pan to the
comfortable ride to reach our destination on time, , oil plays a major role in
our lives. Maps play its unique role in helping out the oil companies. So, the
usage of automobiles have made our lives much easier. Even our body has
become oil from the things we eat.
8. Idealist definition of scale; the idealists argued that neither time nor space
were objective, real things , Rather they are subjective constructs through
which humans make sense of the world. they are “subjective artistic devices”;
mental fictions , they believe their mental images r useful to think abt scale.
9. Scale jumping;means that moving from the one to the other will often be
perceived as an act of 'scale jumping' or 'up-scaling' or 'down- scaling' .
scale jumping was a vital tatctic for 19 centuary social movements.
Particulary those that mobilized affiliations that were discontiguous with
11.Symbolic landscape; Primarily Meinig is interested in landscape as the
appearance of an area (assemblage of objects that produce the area and the
Answer Four short answer questions: 20 points
You are required to answer FOUR short answer questions out of FIVE. Each answer
is worth 5 points (4 answers x 5points =20 points). The short answer questions will
be developed out of the themes listed below.
1. Four different kinds of space (that geographers are currently write about) as
defined by Nigel Thrift
• Four spaces: 1) empirical space; 2) unblocking space; 3) image space; 4)
place space . Empirical space; Space is constructed: something as basic as
road signs and measurement
• Imposed through imperial conquest: brute force also plays a role in the space
• New ways of measuring with new technologies (GPS): space of hyper
• Representational spaces order space but also help us analyze space
• Geographers drew boundaries and define spaces as imperial space, capitalist
space and each has inherent qualities.
– But such representational spaces are approximation… • Geographers are trying to move away from fixing and let more of the world
in and capture dynamism.. How to do that?
• Chop up the blocks into further blocks; actor-networks
• Through images we imagine and create space
• Images are becoming more and more prominent
• Screen technologies have proliferated
• Micro geographies of images: “cooking steps” (Bruno Latour); create spaces
• So not just postmodernism
• Associated with natural register
• Place is space that seems more real to human being
• Embodiment: for example when one walks we have a see, smell, hear…
• This embodiment are cues for memory and behavior
• Is body a container? Embodiment as affect: affect is impersonal force and
increases or decreases potential to act.
2. Geography’s role in formation of (colonial) empires and consolidation of
nation states (see Heffernen).
4. Differences between geography as navigation and geography as exploration.
Geographers think about space as an effective ways.their interest & thinking
about catogarizing the world. Intensive differences are analysed by the
geographers.they went out and discovered the differences. But it tells us these
differences are not exsited, but these differences are created.therefore,
geographers are interested in constructing of space and place, they are interested
in exploration.this exploration is to lay out the land. Geographers are going out
with the primary purpose of the scientific sources which is a self-conscious
pursuit of discovery. So they became interested in navigation.the diwcovery of
new land, finding routes to old lands ( Europe & asia). They started to perform
any scientific discoveries by product navigational missions.
5. Feminist perspective on women in geography i.e. women’s travels and their
The Upper middle calss women wanted to fight in individual bases, but they
didn’t receive any rights.. European women were considered to be a
“minority position”, but still they were white women. They lived differently
comparing to the ones at home. Women were the representation of white
race. The postmodernism allowed women to awake their voices. Post modernism opens the world and tells that the knowledge is ideologically
success. Women traveled for empowerment and self knowledge as much as
for “objective knowledge”.
6. Smith and O’Keefe critique positivist assumption that “nature exists in and
for itself separate from human activity”. They argue that labor process under
capitalism dissolves the dualism posited between nature and society.
Building upon this they posit the thesis of “production of nature”. You should
be able to elaborate upon this thesis.
7. Nature in Social Science
a. Natural sci deals with nature social sci does not
b. Social sci studies nature but of a different kind than natural science
c. Human nature is treated as external nature , * its diferent from
othr*sumthng cmpletely difernt to pysical nature, .conceptualised as
binary opposits( ths psyical nature external 2 humn).social sciences
value how pl value forests.
Purpose * 2 shw us thr sumthng difrent*2 break dwn binary oppositons.they
want to b partculary thngk abut capitalism. Connection f capitalism n nature.
Nature humn r treated as 2 diferent thngs, but wt cud b dne by taking away
this binary oppositons.
d. To show relations of human beings to nature
e. Contemporary period
f. Connections between capitalism and nature
Nature and historical materialism
I is the idea that hw shud v thik about history. Thngs dt r unfolded. As history
,oves forward materila chnges occur, historial materilm gvs us a way 2
undertand these chngs. Pg;31 bottom paragrapph. Its 1 way 2 undertnd
capitalism. Historicl materilsm allows us 2 think abt capitalsm. Capitalsm needs
certan ways on which the production happens. V r under ajust in time methods f
productions. It needs these demand