GGRB02 – Final Exam Guide
1. Timespace compression
First articulated by geographer David Harvey, timespace compression refers to the
movement and communication across space, geographical stretching out of social
relations, and to our experience of all this. It is the annihilation of space by time that is
made possible due to globalization and advancements in technology. It condenses or
expands the speed and pace of our lives, contracting the relative distances between places
making our places grow “closer.” People experience this phenomenon with inequality due
to their social relation; therefore timespace compression’s benefits are not universal.
2. Rentier State
It is a state in which it derives all or substantial portion of their national revenue from
renting the indigenous resources to foreign industry. A rentier state must rely substantially
on external rent; have a small population actually involved in working for this foreign
industry, and the government receiving the greater part of the rent from the foreign
industry. It is a state in which selling their highly valued natural resources to external
sources attains a substantial portion of their national revenue. An example from lecture 8
is Kano, Nigeria, where state rents out land and therefore its oil resources to capitalist
industries looking to profit of their domestic resources. “Black gold” refers to the large
amounts of oil found
3. Risk society
A term by Ulrich Beck, describing a systematic way of dealing with hazards and
insecurity induced and introduced by the modern society. A risk society is man made,
caused by the consumption culture that we live in. In a risk society, there are two ways to
alleviate the risk: ecological modernization (find technological ways in which we can
reduce or avoid the risk) or organized irresponsibility (sanctioned ignorance of risk).
Ecological Modernization: the technical way to deal with risk, the idea that whatever risk
we create, there are technical ways to fix it. This is prominent in modern society because
we have more precision and are more advanced.
Organized Irresponsibility: according to Beck: organized irresponsibility “explains how
and why the institutions of modern society must unavoidably acknowledge the reality of
catastrophe while simultaneously denying its existence, covering its origins and precluding compensation or control” i.e this is seen in the trouble in Guadalupe/Nipomo
dunes as the sand dunes are polluted by the oil industry but they ignore the problem
4. Normal accident accidents that are inevitable in extremely complex systems. In
complex systems, we can almost assume that an accident will occur, but it has been built
into the system. EX. Industrial production such as nuclear plants, they have complicated
systems that work together
5. Reflexive modernity problems resulting from technoeconomic development;
development that is happening due to a reflex to previous decisions or activities that give
rise to a risk society. Reflexive modernity suggests a society is becoming increasingly
more self aware, reflective and reflexive about the technoeconomic development that is
apparent. Reflexive modernity gives an opportunity for radical expansion for democracy
and environmental justice. “An institutionalized activity and state of mind involving
constant monitoring and reflection upon and confrontation with these risks (existing or
not).” People who live in highly developed societies involve themselves in reflexive
6. Spatial Fix the securing and deepening a presence in a specific location as a result of
accumulation of investment over time. Later on, there is an essential need for capital to
spread out over space in order to overcome the eventual crisis of over accumulation
(accumulation reaches a point where reinvestment of capital no longer produces a
return… devaluation occurs and economy crashes..saturation). Think of a Ford factory in
Detroit, accumulating so much labour and capital over time, and when the economy went
to shit, production moved and left Detroit in a horrible position. If there is a problem, fix
it by displacing it ▯a geographical spatial fix
7. Militant Particularism a local initiative against some sort of capitalist development that
has a national resonance. This militant idea starts in a certain place and it gets translated
into a global political movement; scale goes from body, to local, to national, to global.
What is first an extraordinary claim is brought together in defense and advancement
therefore becoming a general interest. Example: Ant sweatshop or living Wage movement
in Baltimore 8. Carbon offsets is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made
in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Clean development
mechanisms (CDMs) or voluntary carbon offsets (VCOs). Alternative or supplementary
ways for individuals, organizations, governments to reduce environmental damage from
their own household, operations or countries. Paying for greenhouse gas reductions
somewhere else while benefiting the atmosphere and creating sustainable development
(especially in developing worlds). Geography of carbon offsets: global north buys
carbon offsets (carbon credits) for the global south. A way of market environmentalism.
9. Accumulation by dispossession neoliberal capitalist policies that result in a
centralization of wealth and power in the hands of few powerful groups of people by
dispossessing the public of their land, resources and therefore wealth. Industrial
production dispossessing the local production, therefore making the industrial production
wealthier. In this act, people are displaced of their space and place, and also deprived of
their means of production. Ex. Farmers are disposed from their land because they
couldn’t compete with industrialized land
10. Occidentalism the self representation/image of “The West” (Europe and English
speaking Americas) in 2 ways.
1. Stereotyped and dehumanized views on Western world
2. Ideologies or visions of the western world created in the West or outside the West
11. Orientalism imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures (Asias) by the West;
this is used to construct “the other.” Seen as inferior to yourself.
Note: orientalism is the construction of the other, but Occidentalism is the construction of
12. Cultural amnesia (bad) degradation of other cultures as “other” through violence and
subjugation (by taking control, conquering, mastering)
13. Cultural nostalgia (good) idealization (positive recognition) of other cultures as “other”
through domination or deference (respect)
14. Ethnoscience the study of a culture’s system of classifying knowledge; a system’s
beliefs, values, method and objects of enquiring characteristics of a specific culture. 15. Situated knowledge produced knowledge is situated in particular historical and
geographical circumstance i.e. knowledge is subjective, and created in a different context.
These circumstances produce knowledge; a certain unique knowledge.
Part II Short Answer Questions
1. Doreen Massey’s elaboration of a progressive global sense of place
In this era, locality is a something that is continually broken up as globalization moves
flows around the world ex find the same food in downtown Toronto that you would in
Tokyo. Insecurity, unsettling and feelings of vulnerability are products of this. People
need a sense of place, of locality. A desire for fixity and for security of identity. A
progressive global sense of place cannot be introverted, cannot be defensive in a
reactionary view. A progressive global sense of place is a reactionary sense of place. The
geography of social relations is changing and a sense of place does not have traditional
locality feel anymore, but rather an evolving sense of place. A place is a network of social
relations and understandings, cultures and different people. Places are processes, not
bounded in the sense of divisions, not a single identity and lots of internal conflicts and a
place can still be place, and unique as well.
Note: there are real relations with real content between any local place and the wider
world in which it is set.
2. Doreen Massey’s elaboration of the power geometry of timespace compression
Power geometry of time space compression: different social groups and individuals are
placed are placed in distinct ways due to these flows and interconnections. Who has the
power in relation to the flows and movement, and who moves and who doesn’t with these
flows? Some people are more in charge than others, some initiate this movement some
are just passengers, some are receiving all these flows because they cannot control and
some are just imprisoned by it. The ones in charge can use it and turn it into their
advantage, and it empowers them further. Refugees from el Salvador or Guatemala are
the ones who move with the flows and the ones who just receive the end of this power
geometry are the elderly; the ones with lesser social power who just sit by the side and let
everything happen. The way people are placed in this time space compression is a
complex deal. We do not all benefit from spacetime compressions, and an example is the Nigerian Deltas where oil revenues go to the government, power geometry exists due to
power and class struggles.
3. Impact of oil on the Nigerian state
Oil boom of the 70s grew at such a steady rate that manufacturing, industrial wage,
management, investment, shares of output all grew due to “the luster of black gold”.
The discovery of oil created timespace compressions in which the Nigerian state had
massive influx of money that they didn’t have before. This sped up the industrial and
urban development of the Nigerian state, and produced massive changes very quickly but
also stalled in a particular fashion such as the Yan Tatsine case where the disenchanted
class was not benefiting from these changes. The discovery of oil also produced a
disconnection of the local state, but connected to the international states. Since oil was an
international commodity it was able to enlarge the Nigerian state.
4. Michael Watts’ explanation of the Forces that shaped the emergence and consolidation of
Marwa Maitatsine in Kano
1. Enlargement of the state growth rates of state revenue of over 100 percent per annum.
Internationalization of the state bc oil runs through international circuits of capital. More
states were created and the depended greatly on the government.
2. Commodity boom with so much money, imports went up so much that Nigeria was
commoditized greatly. Commodity fetishism occurred.
3. Urban construction boom of large proportions, spawned by public investment.
4. Lagged sector in agriculture Nigeria’s classic agrarian exports collapsed completely
due to oil taking over the overwhelming part of its economy. Food exports exploded at
the same time. Rural urban drift occurred, social dislocation in countryside, and growing
sense of corruption and violence.
5. Appreciation of exchange rate along with substantial government budgetary deficit
payments increased and an escalation of external debt, federal and local borrowing,
All these destroyed the sense of place of Kano because Kano was a byproduct of
capitalism and timespace compression, which changed the sense of place and displaced
people of their identity, community, security by commodification of oil, money growth,
enlargement of state. The ‘Yan Tatsine recruits (Marwa Maitatsine’s followers) were
mostly made of the urban poor who felt as if the state caused this towards them.
Also▯Capitalism vs Islam. Note: Maitatsine spoke