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Michelle Buckley

GGRB05H3 – URBAN GEOGRAPHY 9/11/2012 9:18:00 AM Urban Geography  study of cities through spatial lenses ( scale, place, space)  set of approachs theories concepts to explain cities and urban life (Marxian, poststructuralist  can be studied at a range of different spatial scales: o the region, National urban systems, cities and the global economy, the neighbourhood, the streetscape, the body Globalization  New technology  The centrality of information made possible by instant communication  Increasing trend toward standardization of economic and social products  Deepening cross national intergration  Mutual vulnerability stemming from greater interdependence Three Spatial Dynamics of Globalization Internationalization - economic political and cultural activities have begun to cross national boundaries Time-Space Compression - relates practices and technologies that speed up contemporary life thus overcoming spatial barriers and minimizing the time Unevenness - globalization is not affecting all cities in the same ways. Creating greater inequality both BETWEEN and WITHIN cities GLOCALIZATION - refers to something that is happening over time and space but also a set of relations - Glocalization refers to the simultaneous localization of the global and globalization of the local - Universalizing and particularzing tendencies - Ex of glocalization: Chinatown KEY CONCEPTS: Globalization, Internationaliztion, Time-Space Compression Globaliztion GGRB05H3 – URBAN GEO 9/11/2012 9:18:00 AM The Orgins of Urbanization  Urban transformation has been a fundamental factor in development  Mesopotamia (3500 BC) Egypt (3300 BC) Indus Valley (2500) are all documentation of early settlements and agricultural revolution Defining Urbanization : urbanization is an increase in the proportion of a country’s population living under urban centers Suburbanisation/exurbanisation: When suburbs or commuter belt grow at an expense of core Counterurbanisation: occurs when cities loses population and is shrinking Reurbanisation: when the core and the city starts to grow again What Drives Population Growth?  Natural rise of birth rates/ fall in death rates o I.E Saudi Arabia; Housing Crisis, not enough housing to sustain the growing under 25 population  Migration o Transnational urban migration o Rural to Urban (intra-national) o Urban to Urban (intra-national) Quantitive methods of the 1950’s: Questions being raised: why were some cities large and some small? Where did the different groups live? How are urban economies organized?  Spatial disturbution of human activities in cities (industry, Leisure, residential, commerce)  The structure Burgess concentric Circle Model – Modelling the City  Model – Oriented: ideal typologies, quantitive methods, measurement, description etc  Quantative: wasn‘t about the qualities/experiences of a city. Mathmetical and measurement based observations. Burgees based it on feature geographies i.e physical visible and measureable attriubutes  Nomothetic Knowledge: rule based knowledge generalized claims based on a case study CRITIQUES of Burgees Model  Doesn‘t work well outside of the united states and is not relevant  Assumes an isotropic plane (unchanging landscape)  Looks at socio-economic backgrounds but fails to consider race and gender  Economically focused, neglecting other factors that might order cities (ethnic enclaves, social consideration)  Idea of centrality: cities need to have a defiend centre, a middle core is something being challenged by contemporary urbanization and urban theory  Paradigmatic cities: urban geo has been based on small number of ―case studies‖ cities. Burgees Model doesn‘t necessarily reflect urban realities across the world ―MEGALOPLIS – JEAN GOTTESMAN”  1960s  when cities grow together  identified growth of polycentric urban regions o I.E WASHINGTON DC-BOSTON, TORONTO-GTA I.E: LOS ANGELES; Post Modern City  No definable core  Post industrial; economies of film IT military  Intergrated into the global economy; heavily globalized  A messy multicultural mosaic st 21 Century Urbanization  most urbanization is taking place in Africa and middle east not adhering to Burgees Model Mega Cities: pulation of 10 million people and more  Attracting growing proportion of the worlds population  i.e Tokyo-Yokohama  singular entities: mexico city Anthony King: Post Colonial Theory of Urbanization:  Urbanization in city building in Europe have a lot tod o with asymetical flow of labour capital and commodities  Urban devolpment in Europe and north America occurred due to the flow of goods capital and people from colonized territories NIDL – New International Division of Labour  -emergence of world wide market has a profund effect on urbanization process  globalization = seeking to find cheapter labour across the global south MARXIAN Geographical theories of globalization David Harvey:  Urbanization is a product of capatilist economic growth 1)zContends that the capitalist economy is always prone to crisis and it seeks to either postpone or solve these crises geographically  In the case of cities: urbanization, city housing real estate is often a reflection of capitlisms restless search for new ways to make profit David Harvey defines fix as:  Cities act as a spatial fix – fix as in to fix the problem  Fix- as in to secure something in place (new geographical arrangements are put into place to fix the environment in new ways)  Fix- a temporary fix (addict needs a fix, temporary until th economy changes) EX. DISTERILLY DISTRICT and REGENT PARK  Burgees would see it an quantitive perspective (how many people are living there) o Looking at it in a analytical way  David Harvey would see it as a spatial fix to grow and make money. Spatial aspect, profitable and a temporary fix (if the condo market dies, then the condos wont be profitable anymore) o David Harvey sees it as a capitalist perspective Creative Destruction  Refer to the ways that capitalist economic development arises out of prior destruction of something  When cities are growing economies are growing as well  Cities are always destroying and re creating themselves to suit the needs of the economy of that time. GGRB05H3 – URBAN GEOGRAPHY 9/11/2012 9:18:00 AM THE CHANGING ECONOMIES OF THE CITY World Economy - refers to an economy where trade happens across national borders - between firms based in different countries (i.e economic activity ) - has existed since the 16thcentury Global Economy - an economy with the capacity to WORK as a UNIT on a PLANETARY SCALE - I.E Recession in the United States effected factories in Canada DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION - economic globalizations since the 1940ws has resulted in the decline of a number of industrial cities in the western world - alot of factories that were the backbone of western economies have moved to ASIA, SOUTH ASIA in search of lower labor cost - huge IMPACT on cities in the western world - major implications for cities Industrial Capitalism: - productive industries (manufacturing, regining etc) drive of economic growth - largely male/masculine workforce - steady growth of gains for workers (pensions, benefits, wages, working hours) - women were working in factories, however largely needed strong working men - 1940-1970 is when workers fought for better working conditions, sick leave, maternity benefits, wages. Advanced Capitalism - services financial markets drive economic growth o real estate, insurance, derritives are the largest markets in the world - growing # TNC - flexiable more insecure employment o part time jobs - growth of informal economy - feminization of the economy - NIDL new international division of labour o (A GLOBAL LABOUR POOL) o companies can move their operations elsewhere New Urban Economies - have become key sites in which advanced capitalism has been unfolding - banking and service sector firms have come to replace older and typically manufacturing-based core - certain cities have become sites of post industrial production while others particularly in the global South have become manufacturing nodes in the global economy NICS – NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZING COUNTRIES  I.E Brazil  Rapid growth of production facilities in cities across asia and Africa TERITARISATION Primary Sector - extractive resourece activities like mining forestry oil and gas Secondary Sector - productive industries: manufacturing, industrial, production, light industry Teritary sector: - knowledge and information based activities (research and development, IT creative industries like theatre art etc) - service based activities (resturants, financial aid and other producer services) - a lot of the new jobs are very gendered * HOURGLASS CITIES * Urban Income Polarization - the core; multi-skilled highly-educated and highly trained employees in highly paid and relatively secure jobs  top of the labour market - the Periphery; casual, part-time less skilled, more vulnerable to layloffs in times of economic decline - a growing missing middle in urban economies  the middle class has been squeezed Informal Urban Economies - important to consider where the work is being done and under what conditions - systems of trade or economic exchange used outside state controlled or money based transactions Examples:  Household economy: non-money based work (cleaning, groceries, raising children)  Grey Economy: work that is waged, but outside of state taxation, regulation (street vendors, babysitting, formal activities that also have informal elements like bribery)  Crimnal/black Economy: prostitution, drug dealing Informalization Informalization of Work: Europe and north America: growth of service sector jobs has not adequality offset the loss of jobs in manufacaturing; many new jobs have been informalized as employees seek lower labour costs.  alot feminization of the economy:  growing participation by women in waged employment outside of the house  growth of service sector jobs in cities that favour women/feminine work attributes (retail restaurant services and tourism) Formalization of home economics  Unwaged work is becoming waged  The home is becoming a key site in cities connecting the global and the local (transnational domestic work)  ‗home work‘ is becoming state regulated, taxable GGRB05H3 – URBAN GEOGRAPHY 9/11/2012 9:18:00 AM Urban nodes and networks: situating cities in the world - National urban systems - Primate cities - Urban mega-regions - Global cities - Inter-city competition Cities as NODAL sites Badcock, p37: each city serves as a node or centre for its surrounding region (and sometimes for other surrounding cities) We can think about the ways that cities function as ‗central places‘ for the people that live in and around them… BUT urban geographers suggest we also need to think about how different nodes (cities) are connected to, and interact with, each other. National Urban Systems - National urban system (Badcock, p 40) can be defined as a nested hierarchy ranging from hamlets, towns, regional urban centres and cities of national importance. Rank-and-size rule: Often this hierarchy is bases rank-and size (the bigger the city, generally the more significant its economic importance). Primate cities: is a term coined to describe cities that are at least twice as large (economically and in size) than all other cities in that country (e.g. Paris, France; London, England; Nairobi, Kenya). Urban Mega Regions  A mega-region is an integrated system of cities and their surrounding suburban hinterlands across which labour and capital can be reallocated at very low cost (Florida et al., 2008).  Florida et al. 2008 define a mega-region not by population but economic output ($100 billion/year)  The world‘s 40 largest mega-regions, those which produce in excess of $100 billion in economic output, cover only a tiny fraction of the habitable surface of the earth and are home to less than 18% of the world‘s population; yet, they are responsible for 66% of global economic activity and about 85% of technological and scientific innovation. Global Cities  Emerging ‗command and control‘ centres in the global economy of the 1970s-present  Globally-connected, economically powerful urban centres with large concentrations of economic activities in areas such as:  producer services (FIRE‘: Finance, Insurance, Real Estate) information/knowledge industries;  the headquarters (HQ) of many multinational firms  These cities are ―are well-placed to dominate the business of circulating capital and finance around the globe‖ (Badcock, p 57) EX: LONDON  Responsible for 17% of the UK‘s economic output.  Contains HQs of most of the 190 UK-owned firms in the top 500 European firms  A premier financial centre in the global economy  De-industrialization and counter-urbanization in cities across the north of England demonstrates the very uneven effects of globalization on urban economies in the country (see Badcock, p55). How else might we define a global city  Religion - Mecca, Saudi Arabia (see also Badcock reading, p. 47, on the ‗Islamic urban system‘)  Disease, epidemics – Toronto & SARS epidemic  Fashion and culture – Milan, Italy Critisims Of the Global City Theory  It is far too concerned with economic globalization and ignores other very important kinds of ‗global‘ connections – culture, religion, health etc.  It ignores the global networks involving cities in Africa, the Middle East etc. (see the Latham et al. reading); it devalues their connections with the world/global economy & thus leaves them ‗off the map‘ of urban theory.  It paints too simple and static a picture of the global urban landscape, and assumes the best way to understand urban networks is through hierarchical rankings. Global City = Urban Strategy  The global city isn‘t just something that ‗exists‘, but something that has become an ideal that governments are seeking to reach.  The idea of a global city has become something that governments have come to aspire to in their struggle to ‗sell‘ themselves to the rest of the world Inter-urban competition  Refers to the phenomenon that cities must now compete with each other to attract global capital, labour, and investment.  Cities are now in ―cut-throat competition‖ with cities at home and abroad (Douglass, 2002: 55) GGRB05H3 – URBAN GEOGRAPHY 9/11/2012 9:18:00 AM THEORIRES OF URBAN GOVERNANCE Local Governments - government= elected officials, offices, civil servants and their means of formal decision making - urban governments have significant impacts on urban public services , quality of life and the disturbution of public bnefits among citizens between different areas - the governance structures of urban areas greatly effect the power effectivess and nature of urban governemnts Local Government Roles - providing public services and facilities such as roads and maintence parks garbage etc - carrying out central and provincial government such as housing and health - land development Constraints On Local Government - urban quality of life - - weakest level government, weak legal power - have few taxation powers and little autonomy to run their affairs - less people vote in municipal elections than provincial and federal elections  regarded as little importance by voters - Many are talking of a crisis of local government TYPE 1 CONSTRAINTS - ECONOMIC and SOCIAL constraints - can include: the size of health of the local economy limit by tax - poor areas cant fund programs at the same level as rich areas without extra funds - political conditions TYPE 2 CONSTRAINTS - limites imposed by higher government - local governments are the creation of higher levels of government  e.g provinces in Canada, states in the U.S - the province can change what the city of Toronto can do o r not do  can change powers of local governments, their boundries , taxing powers and structure Urban Governance: - how where and among whom power is distributed to - the real power to reorganize urban life - governance is a broader concept than government which also includes informal power relationships, civil society actors and a range of processes Power And authority in the City - power is usually disturbuted unevenly within cities - not all groups have equal access of power Pluralism: theory of governance that assumes that government takes place through a diverse set of groups that compete and negotiate for power in decision making - always a diversity of intrest that exists around a particular urban issues - assumes that not all groups have an equal power to influence decision making (i.e smoke will have more money or connections to local government to get their opinon across) - one way of thinking about how power is dispersed among different actors Formal influences:  voting for elected officials  top down public consultations imeeting set up by government  commissions or other speacil groups set up to provide input on urban policy issues Informal Influences  Corruption and bribery  Bottom up – urban social moments organized to pressure governments  Gerrymandering- changing political borders to obtain desired voting income o Change political boundries to suit your needs and exclude those who wont vote
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