definitions A-M.docx

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Jack Arn

A Annexation: The addition of territory to a unit of government, usually in terms of a city adding adjacent land to accommodate metropolitan expansion. advocacy planning: roots traced to the growing rate of delinquency and vandalism in the US city of the late 1950s, which several analysts attributed to citizen alienation and anomie. It means the provision of professional planning expertise and services to minority groups lacking the financial ability to purchase such services. Davidoff popularized the concept. It recognizes that „the public interest‟ is a matter of politics. An attempt to move citizens‟ participation forward from merely reacting to agency plans to propose their own concepts of appropriate goals and future action. Various forms, but 3 examples are the Architect‟s Renewal Committee of Harlem (ARCH), Urban Planning Aids of Boston (UFA) and the Community Design Centre (CDC) of San Francisco. ARCH, formed in 1964 by group of white professionals who felt that their expertise could be of service to the Harlem community. The limited power of the advocacy strategy has been criticized by one of the founders of ARCH because of little fundamental changes. Also relates to community and economic development. Some of its r supporters have suggested that it should be under- taken by planners operating within the established city planning system without the necessity of a client group. Pragmatic radicalism. assimilation: The process by which an immigrant group is absorbed into the dominant culture, becoming virtually indistinguishable from the dominant group. acculturation: The process by which an immigrant group adopts some of the practices of the dominant culture, such as speaking the language, although the group still maintains its distinctiveness. area-based approach: used in the study of deprivation. Critics have dismissed area- based research on the grounds that it does not offer an explanation of the causes of revealed patterns of deprivation. auto restraint: Road pricing is, in effect, one kind of auto restraint policy in that one of its goals is to promote the use of public transport by making car travel more difficult. Other restraint policies include prohibiting on-street car parking and the provision of additional downtown parking areas. The ultimate form of auto restraint is to ban cars from a section of the city, either wholly or partially, by prohibiting the entry of certain vehicles (e.g. according to licence plates) on certain days. Historic European cities (such as Vienna, Milan and Gothenburg) have limited traffic penetration in the interests of the liveability of the city centre.22 In Gothenburg the central city is subdivided into five sectors, and while traffic is permitted entry within any sector, crosssector flows are prohibited so as to exclude through traffic. Aspiration set-- individuals initiate a search procedure to locate a suitable new dwelling. This search has a spatial bias.This may be illustrated by conceptualizing the city as comprising four types of space:action space, activity space, awareness space and search space. Action space-- is the most extensive and refers to those parts of the city with which the individual is familiar, includes a subjective evaluation of places. The longer an individual lives in a city the larger the action space and the greater the differentiation. New areas are assimilated into the action space as travel and information spread. Activity space-- is the territory within which daily movement takes place and is normally organized around often- used nodes, including home, workplace, friends‟ houses and shopping centers. awareness space-- Areas of a city that a person or household has knowledge of as a result of direct contact (action space) or indirect sources, such as the media. B buppies: Buppies are members of the black middle class. The term appears to have originated in South Africa after apartheid, and it has since spread to other regions of the world, perhaps most notably into the United States. Like other demographic groups, buppies can be a fruitful avenue of study for sociologists and anthropologists, and they are also of interest to advertising agencies and companies which wish to expand their market share. brown agenda: A set of concerns focusing on environmental hazards, pollution problems and poverty in the Third World city. Blockbusting-- A process whereby the racial composition of a residential block changes from white to black, usually as a consequence of activity by real-estate agents who trigger such a change by introducing a small number of black households into a previously white block. betterment value-- is a general term used particularly in connection with the increased value given to real property by causes for which a tenant or the public but not the owner. burgage cycle-- The burgage cycle indicates the way in which land use on a single plot develops over time. Balanced Communities: In the USA, Hope VI program, create mixed income communities by breaking up concentrations of poor public housing and encouraging middle- income households into redeveloped neighborhoods. UK, creating “balanced communities” is the central plank of government urban policy. However, socio- spatial segregation will still remain a characteristic of the residential landscape. C combined heat and power: is heat produced during the process of electricity generation is used for space and water heating, increase the efficiency of conversion of primary fuel to around 80 per cent and also reduce the environmental impact per unit of delivered energy. This advantage applies to small-scale CHP plant serving individual buildings or groups of buildings as well as large-scale schemes serving industry or providing heat for whole towns. compact city: Twentieth-century proposals for high-density urban living are associated especially with high-rise residential buildings made possible by advances in technology. This is illustrated graphically in Le Corbusier‟s (1929) scheme for a contemporary city of 3 million inhabitants25 (Figure 30.6) and in Sol-eri‟s (1969) three-dimensional city26 (Figure 30.7). Although these futuristic designs are unlikely to be built in the near future, the concept of a compact, high-density, mixed-use city has been proposed as an energyefficient form of urban development that reduces travel distances and maximizes prospects for public-transport provision.27 As we have seen, others have questioned the energy consumption advantages of the compact city, arguing that decentralisation of jobs and houses has reduced journey lengths and that congestion in urban areas offsets any gains resulting from shorter journeys.28 There is also the political question of the feasibility of urban compaction. We have seen in Chapter 4 that despite some evidence of reurbanisation, the major population trend in advanced societies continues to be decentralisation. This is supported by the centrifugal movement of economic activities and is reflected in lifestyle preference.29 Clearly, and notwithstanding possible energy advantages, a fundamental practical problem with the compact city proposal is that it requires the reversal of the decentralisation trend that has characterised urban development in advanced societies for the past half-century. The degree of coercion required to reverse this trend, via planning or taxation mechanisms, is unlikely to be acceptable politically in Western society. colonialism: The establishment and maintenance of rule, for an extended period of time, by a sovereign power over a subordinate and alien people that is separate from the ruling power. council-manager government: The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities. [1Council–manager government form also is used in county governments in the United States and the governing body in a county may be called a council, a commission, freeholders, aldermen, and such. The council-manager form also is used for municipal government in Canada and in Ireland, among many other countries, both for city councils and county councils. citizen participation: the redistribution of power that enables the have-not citizens, presently excluded from the political and economic processes, to be deliberately included in the future. common-interest development: A residential development planned and marketed as a spatially segregated environment. A synonym is gated community. congregation: The residential clustering of an ethnic minority through choice, as opposed to involuntary segregation as a result of structural constraints and discrimination. colonies: n politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state that owns the colony. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was called the metropolis. Mother country is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non- Self-Governing Territories. collective consumption: A social process involving the provision of public goods and services, such as education, that are produced and managed on a collective basis and distributed on the basis of non-market choice. culture of poverty: The culture of poverty is a social theory that expands on the cycle of poverty. It attracted academic and policy attention in the 1960s, but has largely been discredited by academics around the turn of the century (Goode and Eames, 1996; Bourgois, 2001; Small M.L., Harding D.J., Lamont M., 2010). Although the idea is experiencing a "comeback" current scholars recognize racism and isolation, rather than the "values" of the poor as the [1] reason for potentially mal-adaptive behaviors of the poor. It offers one way to explain why poverty exists despite anti-poverty programs; critics of the culture of poverty argument insist that structural factors rather than individual characteristics better explain the persistence of poverty (Goode and Eames, 1996; Bourgois, 2001; Small M.L., Harding D.J., Lamont M., 2010). credit unions: A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, democratically controlled by its members, and operated for the purpose of promoting thrift, providing credit at competitive rates, and providing other financial services to its members. commuting: Commuting is regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full-time study. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations, even when not work-related. congestion fee: a system of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excess demand such as higher peak charges for use of bus services, electricity, metros, railways, telephones, and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion; airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times. This variable pricing strategy regulates demand, making it possible to manage congestion without increasing supply. community development bank: are commercial banks that operate with a mission to generate economic development in low- to moderate-income (LMI) geographical areas and serve residents of these communities. In the United States, community development banks are certified as such by the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, a department within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Concentric-zone model-- proposed as an ideal type, not as a representation of reality. Based on the study of Chicago at one point in time it offers a description of urban development as this would occur if only one factor determined the pattern of urban growth. The value it is to limited historically and culturally. The model cannot be applied universally, and even within the USA it has become dated. Circulation of capital-- includes intermediate goods and operating expenses, i.e., short-lived items that are used in production and used up in the process of creating other goods or services. This is roughly equal to intermediate consumption. council housing-- rising in cost and the growing gap between cost rents and the „fair rents‟ charged under the Rent Acts required increasing government subsidies. Some proponents of the „right to buy‟ argued that if long-standing tenants were given their houses and others sold at favorable terms, the savings on subsidies and revenue raised could either lead to a reduction in taxation or allow funds to be directed into other areas. community-based housing associations: D dispersed city: The promotion of dispersed or decentralised settlements as an alternative to large cities is part of the green city genre.23 Key themes of the ideal model include the centrality of small-scale economic and political organisation, grass-roots political empowerment, an emphasis on collective action, local economic self-reliance, including farming and industry, the use of appropriate technologies, recycling and re-use of materials, and the value of „natural‟ ecological or resource areas as potential political boundaries. The decentralisation theme reached an extreme in the low-density (one family per acre) hightechnology „exurbia‟ proposed by Wright (1974),24 in which people would be closer to nature, encouraging the „nomad hermit‟ instinct rather than the urge to be part of the city „herd‟. This „non-city‟ form of urban dispersion would be energy-intensive and profligate of resources. development: refers to the simple idea of rolling one smooth surface over another in Euclidean space. For example, the tangent plane to a surface (such as the sphere or the cylinder) at a point can be rolled around the surface to obtain the tangent plane at other points. dependency theory: Relates the backwardness of Third World economies to the hegemony of Western nations over the world economic order and the consequent ability of these states and multinational corporations to exploit peripheral areas. Development and underdevelopment are viewed as different outcomes of the same process. Dillon’s Rule: Dillon's Rule is derived from written decision by Judge John F. Dillon of Iowa in 1868. It is a cornerstone of American municipal law. It maintains that a political subdivision of a state is connected to the state as a child is connected to a parent. Dillon's Rule is used in interpreting state law when there is a question of whether or not a local government has a certain power. Dillon's Rule narrowly defines the power of local governments. defensive incorporation: designed to preserve the status quo, is commonplace. Evident in the number of municipalities that mushroomed in Nassau County NY in inter- war period. Example, Lake Success, incorporated as a municipality in 1926 to keep out the growing number of weekend trippers by giving residents control of lakeside property and access roads. deinstitutionalization: For most of the twentieth century and before, med-ical opinion advocated the isolation of the mentally ill in specialised institutions. Since the 1960s, however, a policy of deinstitutionalisation and the associated concept of care in the community have favoured the progressive discharge of patients from long-stay institutions. It was believed that the power of „community‟ would help to reintegrate the mentally ill into mainstream society by providing a „sense of belonging‟ as well as access to neighbourhood services, including mental-care facilities. In practice the policy met with only limited success in assimilating chronic mentally ill patients into urban society.42 For many, their situation merely changed from one of segregation from society to one of segregation in society. The city can be a difficult living environment for former mental patients confronted by marginalisation and social exclusion (see Chapter 19). Many end up in areas of the inner city where stress caused by poverty and isolation is likely to accentuate rather than alleviate their problems.43 The difficulty of assimilation is compounded by the negative externality effects of mental-health facilities that generate the Nimby (not in my backyard) phenom-enon.44 While people are content to live close to a park, library or school, mental-health facilities rank alongside garbage dumps and prisons as undesirable neighbours that should be located „elsewhere‟. As Taylor (1989 p. 317) explained, community exclusion of the mentally ill emerges as „a manifestation of individual and collective desires to protect territory with the aims of maintaining the use and exchange values of home and neighbourhood and, in a deeper but related level, as a component within a process of reproduction that perpetuates the uneven distribution of life chances and advan tages‟.45 Since resistance is strongest in suburban localities (with, for example, use of exclusionary zoning and criminalisation of homelessness to exclude „undesirables‟), mental-health facilities (such as day centres, cheap cafés and drop-in centres) tend to be concentrated in low-income inner-city neighbourhoods, reinforcing the spatial concentration of disadvantaged people in deprived environments. Displacement-- The process by which a social or economic change removes people involuntarily, such as from their homes or from employment. difficuIt-to-let estates: degree of discrimination in operation in that local authority housing with design faults or on difficult- to let estates unacceptable to white families was almost by fault allocated to non- whites. Discrimination-- the prejudicial and/or distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category, "in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated." It involves the group's initial reaction or interaction, influencing the individual's actual behavior towards the group or the group leader, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision making. E exo-urbanisation: A pattern of foreign-investment-induced urbanisation in the Third World characterised by labour- intensive and assembly-manufacturing types of exportoriented industrialisation based on the low-cost input of large quantities of labour and land, which has in turn promoted rural-urban population migration. extended metropolitan region: The spatial outcome of a process of population deconcentration from the core area of a metropolitan region and higher growth rates in the outer areas. enclaves: In geography, an enclave is a country which is entirely enclosed by another nation. Most commonly, an enclave is also an exclave, meaning that it is actually the satellite of a larger mother state. Enclaves may be formed for a number of a reasons, but they often result in administrative and political issues, and attempts are frequently made to eliminate them. The term is also used to refer to a clustered religious or ethnic group within a larger one, as is the case with San Francisco's Chinatown. equity: Justice or fairness in the distribution of income and other aspects of human life chances. efficiency: Efficiency in general describes the extent to which time, effort or cost is well used for the intended task or purpose. It is often used with the specific purpose of relaying the capability of a specific application of effort to produce a specific outcome effectively with a minimum amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. "Efficiency" has widely varying meanings in different disciplines. externalities: The usually unintended effects of one person‟s actions on another, over which the latter has no control. Externalities may be either positive (as when well kept gardens raise
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