definitions N- W.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GGRB05H3
Professor
Jack Arn
Semester
Summer

Description
N neighbourhood-change continuum—is factor that may increase a neigh boarhound‘s susceptibility to decline or revitalization are suburbanization ‗homog eneity‘, in filling, down grading, thinning out and renewal. Natural areas-- conceived by the Chicago ecologists as ‗a geographical area characterized both by a physical individuality and by the cultural characteristics of the people who live in it‘. A classic depiction of natural areas is provided by Zorbaugh‘s (1929) study of two contrasting areas in Chicago‘s Near North Side, a district of 90,000 people close to the city centre and bounded by industrial land uses and the lake shore. Nimbyism: Nimby is an acronym for ‗not in my back yard‘. Nimbyism signifies an attitude typical of individuals who resist the siting of a source of negative externalities close to their homes. network city: The transnational political-economic processes that have given rise to ‗world cities‘ (see Chapter 14) have also influenced urban form and development at the regional level with the growth of ‗corridor cities‘ linking knowledge-intensive centres with larger metropolises, as in the case of the London Cambridge corridor. In these bicentric urban systems, close links have been forged between places of complementary function rather than simply on the basis of physical proximity (Figure 30.8). A small but growing number of modern urban agglomerations consist of an intricate web of corridor cities whose functional and locational relationships can provide them with holistic competitive advantages over some of their monocentric rivals. Examples of these network cities include Randstad Holland, Singapore and Malayasia‘s Multimedia Super Corridor,34 while the Kansai region of Japan represents a particularly innovative case (Box 30.7) Some observers claim that certain network cities may enjoy greater diversity and creativity, less congestion and more locational freedom than monocentric cities of comparable size,35 and that the model may be of particular relevance for the still-growing world cities. new international division of labour: A form of the division of labour associated with the internationalisation of production and the spread of industrialisation in a number of newly industrialising countries of the Third World as capital seeks to maintain its levels of profit. Need: something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants because a deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome, such as dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as food, or they can be subjective and psychological, such as the need for self-esteem. negative equity-- A situation in which the value represented by the market price of a house is insufficient to cover the cost of repayment of the mortgage taken on to purchase the property. O outer city: The definition of an 'outer city' can be considered as the 'older suburbs.'. These would typically those suburbs that have been long established but have been urbanized. On the other hand, the 'inner city' would be those central cities that are considered to be the biggest within the metropolis. Overaccumulation-- is one of the potential causes of the crisis of capital accumulation. A crisis of capital occurs due to what Karl Marx refers to as the internal contradictions inherent in the capitalist system which result in the reconfiguration of production. The contradiction in this situation is realized because of the condition of capitalism that requires the accumulation of capital through the continual reinvestment of surplus value. owner-occupation-- is a person who lives in and owns the same home. It is a type of housing tenure. The home of the owner-occupier may be, for example, a house, apartment, condominium, or a housing cooperative. The immovable property of the owner, which includes the home and the land upon which it sits, is known as the real estate. P peripheral urbanization: A model that employs a political economy perspective to provide a generalised description of the impact of global capitalism on national urban systems in the Third World. The expansion of capitalism into peripheral areas is seen to generate a strong process of urbanisation. power: The ability to make people do things they would not otherwise do through control over resources. Power is exercised at all scales from the individual to the world economy. Those with greatest power (economic, political, social) have most control over the organisation of society and of the allocation of society‘s benefits. This unequal power is reflected in the social relations between classes and is manifested in the capitalist city. patronage: Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given to a store by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints. The word "patron" derives from the Latin patronus, "patron," one who gives benefits to his clients populist politics: In Britain, where local politics is closely tied to the national party structure, the formation of new political groupings to contest local elections is not common. By contrast, in North America the dominance of non-partisanship in municipal government allows independent interests to enter the political arena more easily, as demonstrated by the election of a populist/liberal majority on the Santa Monica CA city council in 1981.45 Nonpartisanship in US cities most often exists where the structure of ‗reformed‘ government has produced a commission or city-manager form of administration. In many of the large North American cities, however, the apparent independence of politicians disguises a conservative, business-oriented outlook. Under particular circumstances, social and economic trends can combine to generate a momentum that is sufficient to give rise to a popular alternative political movement as a challenge to the status quo. One example of such an event was the emergence of The Electors‘ Action Movement (TEAM) in Vancouver. This liberal urban-reform party was founded in 1968 and assumed political control of the city between 1972 and 1978. Based on an ideology of producing a liveable city, TEAM challenged and temporarily replaced the prevailing growthboosterism basis of Vancouver politics.46 The TEAM ideology achieved some significant successes, most notably the redevelopment of the False Creek inner-city area, but it also produced several outcomes that were socially regressive for the working class and opened the administration to charges of elitism. This was particularly the case in the private land market, where the administration could wield only indirect influence. Thus, for example, the beautification and pedestrianisation of the main downtown shopping avenue was carried through despite protests from a number of shopkeepers. The subsequent rent increases by landlords forced some of the retailers to relocate. The False Creek redevelopment itself also resulted in some negative externalities for low-income residents in the neighbouring area of Fairview Slopes, whose homes were demolished to make way for expensive town-house developments. This elitism, albeit unintended, together with internal divisions, the constraints of the national and provincial political structure, and a downturn in the local economy, combined to defeat TEAM in the 1978 elections. The demise of TEAM as a party, however, did not herald the extinction of the TEAM ideology. The political vacuum was filled by the Committee of Progressive Electors (COPE), a democratic socialist party which by 1990 held half the seats on the city council. For two decades from 1970, TEAM and COPE offered electors a credible alternative to the pro-growth NPA (Non-Partisan Association) city government. As the experience of TEAM and other formal participation initiatives demonstrates, the struggle between citizen interests and those inherent in the capitalist urban development process is an unequal one. The main problem that has confounded attempts at municipal democratisation is that in most instances a level of influence rather than power has been redistributed (Figure 20.7). The limited ability to exert a meaningful influence on urban decision-making through formal channels of participation (that is, representative democracy and governmentmandated citizen participation) has resulted in the rise of radical ‗bottom up‘ protest groups and urban social movements. polarization: A process of inequality that occurs when both the top and the bottom of the scale of income or wealth distribution grow faster than the middle, thus shrinking the middle and sharpening social differences between two extreme segments of the population. positive discrimination: A policy designed to favour disadvantaged groups within society in order to reduce or eliminate inequalities. If targeted at particular areas, these policies are referred to as area-based policies of positive discrimination public goods: Goods that are either freely available to all (such as air) or those provided equally to all citizens of a defined territory. poverty: An institutionally defined concept that refers to a level of resources below which it is not possible to achieve the standard of living considered to be the minimum norm in a given society at a given time. post-edge city: political economy-- An approach to the study of urban geography that emphasizes the impact of political and economic institutions on the physical form and social life of cities. Postmodernism-- A broad-based movement in philosophy, the arts and social science characterized by skepticism towards the ‗grand theory‘ of the modern era, stressing instead openness to a wide range of views in social inquiry. In urban geography the postmodern city shares many of the characteristics of the post-industrial city, with an emphasis on new economic structures, social differentiation and variety of lifestyles. planning gain-- The benefit (in money or in kind) provided to a local authority by a private developer in return for the granting of planning permission. The procedure is similar to the US concept of incentive zoning. Privatization-- A diverse set of policies designed to introduce private ownership and private market allocation mechanisms to goods and services previously allocated and owned by the public sector. private-rented sector—largely unassisted and subject to a lengthy period of rent control and regulation. The effects of this policy regime are revealed in the changing tenure structure of Britain‘s housing stock. planning blight-- The adverse effect of long-term planning proposals or the consequences of planning indecision on the value of property affected. R recuperative production: The recovery and recycling of waste, largely undertaken by workers in the informal sector, which forms an important element in the economy of Third World cities. rural urbanization: urbanization from below, characterized by population in- migration, urban growth in predominantly smaller cities and towns, and a major transformation of the countryside landscape with the development of an intensive mixture of agricultural and non- agricultural activities. regime theory: A variant of the urban-growth-machine model that develops the concept of fluid, overlapping alliances among local business and political leaders in order to achieve desired solutions to particular problems. A regime is defined as the informal arrangements by which public and private interests function together to make and carry out governing decisions. road pricing: A strategy to relieve traffic congestion which views the problem as a market failure that can be addressed by increasing the price motorists pay for the use of road space which is in short supply. ride-sharing: Three-quarters of the 84 per cent of the American labour force that travel to work by car are solo drivers. Nationally the average private vehicle in the USA transports only 1.15 persons on its trip to the workplace. One way of increasing highway capacity is for transport planners to implement programmes to encourage ride-sharing through car- and vanpooling schemes. Research suggests that to maxi mise the possibility of adoption, such schemes should be targeted at particular populations. Many people are not amenable to giving up the freedom of solo driving or are constrained from participating by other daily activity patterns such as collecting children or shopping. It appears that the most effective programmes are those arranged through employers. Evidence from Phoenix suggests that employees favour van pools over car pools because their private cars need not be used, they need not drive in rush-hour conditions, the arrangements are made for them and they have an opportunity to socialise with colleagues.23 Assisting employers to set up van pooling as an employee benefit is thus often more cost-effective than media campaigns aimed at the general public. Although all the strategies considered can contribute to ameliorating the urban transport problem, no single policy is sufficient to promote optimum use of the urban transport system. What is required is a package of self-reinforcing strategies that are integrated into the overall planning process for the metropolitan area. This means considering both transport and non-transport options. Red-lining-- The demarcation by financial institutions of residential areas of a city as being in decline and thus not suitable for investment. rent gap-- The hypothesized gap between actual rent attracted by a piece of land or property and the rent that could be obtained under a higher and better use. As the rent gap enlarges, opportunities for profitable reinvestment increase, as in the process of gentrification. rent control-- refers to laws or ordinances that set price controls on the renting of residential housing. It functions as a price ceiling. Rent control exists in approximately 40 countries around the world. Rent control laws vary from one country to another, and may vary from one jurisdiction to another within some countries right to buy-- a policy in the United Kingdom which gives secure tenants of councils and some housing associations the legal right to buy, at a large discount, the home they are living in. There is also a Right to acquire for assured tenants of housing association homes built with public subsidy after 1997, at a smaller discount. residualisation-- a consequence of broader economic and social processes, including high unemployment resulting from technological innovation and deindustrialisation, the withdrawal of private landlords from the low-rent market, increased demand for owner-occupation among the more affluent, and government policies aimed at reducing public expenditure. regional city: sustainable urban development. Lynch (1981)31 advocated creating a regional city comprising a series of separate medium-size communities surrounded by large areas of open space and connected by major roads. Somewhat presciently, Lynch (1961) remarked on the possibility of a ring city with strong edge-of-city centres being developed around metropolitan areas in North America.32 The ‗galaxy of settlements‘ approach also underlay Gruen‘s (1973) notion of the cellular metropolis.33 This aimed to make the economic, social and cultural benefits of the city centres available to all residents of an urban region by designing a constellation of thirty towns, each of 50,000 people and made up of smaller (1,900 person) neighbourhoods, around a central downtown area of 65,000 people—a model similar in concept to a scaled-up version of Howard‘s social city region ( S socio-spatial segregation: a feature of the urban landscape of Liverpool. It was based on three principal factors: (1) socio-economic class; (2) ethnicity (primarily Irish/non-Irish); and (3) stage in lifestyle. Though the result is a complex mix of sectors, zones and nuclei. sustainable urban development: As we noted in Chapter 8, sustainable development is ‗development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs‘.1 This concept is based on the following three principles: 1. Intergenerational equity, which requires that natural capital assets of at least equal value to those of the present are passed on to future generations. This requires attention to the Earth‘s regenerative capacity and the ability of its systems to recuperate and maintain productivity. Ideally, the present generation should bequeath an improved environment in areas that are degraded or socially deprived. 2. Social justice, which requires that fair and equitable use is made of present resources in terms of meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspiration to a better life. While for many people growing affluence has transformed luxuries into needs, the poorest are often unable to obtain basic necessities. On a global scale, the environmental costs of supporting the living standards of the rich while meeting the needs of the poor may prove impossible to sustain. 3. Transfrontier responsibility, which requires recognition and control of cross-border pollution. Ideally the impacts of human activity should not involve an uncompensated geographical displacement of environmental problems. At a world level, rich nations should not overexploit the resources of other areas, thereby distorting regional economies and ecosystems. At the city scale the environmental costs of urban activities should not be displaced across metropolitan boundaries, in order to subsidise urban growth. social justice: which requires that fair and equitable use is made of present resources in terms of meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspiration to a better life. While for many people growing affluence has transformed luxuries into needs, the poorest are often unable to obtain basic necessities. On a global scale, the environmental costs of supporting the living standards of the rich while meeting the needs of the poor may prove impossible to sustain. Secession: tendencies infiltrate the fragmented structure of local government in the USA. For some, the politics of secession privileges private values over collective social values. Citizens with the necessary resources can choose to move from one jurisdiction to another that suits their ideals. socio-spatial segregation: a feature of the urban landscape of Liverpool. It was based on three principal factors: (1) socio-economic class; (2) ethnicity (primarily Irish/non-Irish); and (3) stage in lifestyle. Though the result is a complex mix of sectors, zones and nuclei. special districts: the most widespread type of local government and are established to perform a specific function such as provision of fire protection, hospital services or water supply. Directors of special districts are not accountable to city or county officials because special districts are separate legal entities. Their boundaries do not necessarily conform to those of any other local government unit and often overlap the boundaries of the city and each other. status areas: The contrasts between Hampstead and Tower Hamlets in London, and Beverly Hills and Watts in Los Angeles CA, are highly visible and generally acknowledged. Status areas reflect the residential preferences and economic power of upper and middle-income citizens. This is particularly evident in the US city, where, by the late 1980s, 40 million Ameri
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