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Denisse Macaraig

• Definitions of Urban Geography • Are all places individual? Or are they all similar? • Commonalities and differences • They all contain ‘space’, but the usage can differ • Historical trajectory development: • Suburbanization, gentrification, etc. • Cities may exhibit common problems • inadequate housing • economic decline • poor health (environmental and human) • the provision of services • Underbounding and Overbounding • Underbound = built up area exceeds administrative area • Overbound = administrative area exceeds built up area • Space and Place • Places are special sites where people live and work and form intimate connections • Spaces: just a spot • Levels of Analysis and Approaches to Study Urban Geography • Neighborhood: area immediately around one home. Homogeneity in housing type or ethnicity or culture • City: centers of economic production and consumption, social networks and cultural activities, governments. Distribution of power • The region: spread of urban influences, conurbation, megalopolis, footprint • National system of cities: defined goals established that extend beyond urban concerns, based on prime minister, president, national economy, regardless of individual urban areas. Want to be more competitive, attract. National goals. • World system of cities: interdependence of nations and cities within global economy. Reframe urban questions that are not limited simply to cities or nations. Link to the globe. • Global Triggers For Urban Change • Economy, technology, demography, social, culture, politics, environment • Processes of Urban Change • Urbanization: certain settlements grow at cost of surrounding countryside • Suburbanization: urban ring grows at the cost of the core (built up city) • Counter urbanization: population loss in urban core exceeds gain of the ring, overall population loss • Re-urbanization: rate of population loss tapers off or core regains. • Globalization as a Complicating Factor • Can create cities in the same mindset • Economic globalization: TNCs, creating markets in other countries • Political globalization: multinational political groups like UN governing • Cultural globalization: same tastes and values, McDonalds. • Sometimes places resist as well. Landscape changes. • Preconditions For Urban Growth • Population, environment, technology, social organization • Childe • Size/density, specialization of labor, surplus, class-structured society, state organization • Public works, long distance trade, standardized artwork, writing, math geometry astronomy • Duncan • Population: certain population size needed to create growth • Environment: topography, conditions needed for urban growth • Technology: development of skills and technology needed for urban growth • Social organization: need to organize population through political, economic, social, bureaucratic, social stratification • Global Urban Patterns • Urbanization: proportion • Urban growth: total population in towns and cities • Urbanism: extension of social behavioral characteristics • Causes of Urban Growth • Growth of urban population • Net immigration • Urbanization is Contemporary • Megacities • More than 10 million • Metacities • More than 20 million: Tokyo • Global Cities • Discorporate amount of economic activity, Tokyo, London New York • Types of Urban Regions • City-region: employment • Conurbation: coalescence of once spate urban settlements • Urban field: hinterland of 300,000 outer limit of 2 hours driving. Core urban area and hinterland • Geddes • conurbation • Conurbation • Built up area of separate urban settlements. • Megalopolis • Gottman, urbanized areas of north east seaboard, 40 million. Urban unit of 25 million, transnational areas. Polynuclear form. Cohesiveness. Zones. Urbanized corridor, sector. • Mumford • Military need developed avenue and troop mobility for understanding architecture • Gottmann • megalopolis • Canada-US Metropolitan Comparisons • Both baby boom, both have an increased immigration • US population increased by 11.8%, Canada population increased by 16.8% • Canada has no metropolitan areas where both city core and suburbs are declining, 39 cities in US are declining • Canada much more concentrated compared to the US. Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal. Concentrated. • US has much higher levels of suburbanization. 1.5:1 vs Canada 1.3:1 • Much more compact. • Much more fragmented, some regions have tax in US, Canada is uniform. • More compact cities in canda, strong cores, high levels of investment in housing, consistent education standrads • But more US style subrubraundazation and car depdence. Decentralizaiotn occurring. • Central Place Theory • Christaller, 1933. Through Competition for space, optimal settlement patterns will emerge. Settlements should be thought of as systems of cities, settlements are clusters, increased success. Allow for goods and services where there are low and high ordered. Population it serves, if population is spread out, the settlements will also be spread ut. • Abstract flat place, evenly distributed population, shortest distance for any given service. Suppliers exist to maximize profits, seek largest possible markets. Transpiration costs are equal. High order can provide functions not offered by low ordered. Consumers have same income and demand for services. Lower limit: threshold population, upper limit: range of good or maximum distance people will travel for services. • Christaller • Central place theory • Mercantile Model • Vance, central place theory is special case that ignores wholesale sector • Exploration • Harvesting of natural resources • Emergence of farm based staple production • Establishment of interior depot centers, further development of settlement inland, development of domestic and export manufa
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