midterm review geo logic.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Rajyashree Narayanareddy

Spaces of Consumption Bangalore 40s-late 80s Garden City Site of Public sector units ,New York ,London ,Tokyo Sassens Global Cities New York, London, Tokyo The characteristics of Global cities according to Sassen: 1. They are the command and control points of the global economy 2. Key finance and other leading service sectors which have replaced manufacturing sector are located here 3. Sites of production particularly of production of innovations in producer services 4. They are key markets of these products and services Sassen: First Theme Great territorial dispersal of economic activities How to manage it? need central control and command management centers decentralization of production has not been accompanied by decentralization of ownership Spatial expression of this tendency agglomeration of command functions in a few sites i.e. global cities the high density of businesses in the business district : For Sassen this implies that face- to-face contact is still necessary Second theme: economic order within cities? Sassen asserts that global cities are not simply cities that coordinate globalization but also make things and these things are 1) specialized services (advertizing, accounting, business law) 2) production of financial innovations These services are in turn conceived of as producer services and the global city is the advanced production site of producer services . Will this contribute to decline of industrial cities? Producer services Producer services are services that are mostly produced for firms rather than individuals These services support production but production is broadly understood Within these producer services financial innovation was extremely important : new market place combining smaller banks have emerged Global control is with firms offering producer service in global cities rather than corporations or government Why are we witnessing proliferation and concentration of producer services? Because of global assembly line Producer service firms need not be proximately located to the consumer served but they have to be proximate to each other Why .Information they use is two fold 1) data that can be easily transferred 2) data that needs interpretation and evaluation which is better accomplished when there is social connectivity Third theme: political implications What is the relationship of the global city to the nation-state that it is located in and to the other cities of the nation-state? Global cities emerge as transnational economic spaces where governments only play a minimal role Global cities prospered but the nation state did not necessarily prosper (although as we see now when they go bust the fortunes of nation states are adversely impacted) Relationship to other cities minor versions of NY, London and Tokyo are created but they have lost ground relatively Fourth theme: social order What is the impact of the growth of these sectors on the social order? This is to ask about the sociology of the service sector These industries show great polarization i.e. half the jobs are high-paying jobs and the other half is low paying service job. This implies that there is hardly any middle class... In terms of employment there has been higher than average increase in producer services ; Finance paid highest salaries , part time jobs have increased and are gendered Finance sector contribution to overall growth increased : for example this was the case in NY Fourth theme: social order (cont..) Impact on class and spatial polarization: produces residential and commercial gentrification and a lot of people are employed in low end jobs to service these gentrified areas Transient and casual employment has increased Increase in immigrants in low end sector even in Tokyo which has historically been anti immigrant So we have new capital labor relation and we have to pay attention to the characteristics of the job and not just its sectoral location Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research collective Began to develop a rooster of world cities & classified cities into alpha cities, beta cities, gamma cities Why? Because their mission is to promote a different metageographical image of the world, a space of flows held together by a network of cities Secondly, the mission is to measure, analyse, interpret and understand the world according to GaWC 1998 map produced by GaWC 1998 Based upon attributes of cities A. ALPHA WORLD CITIES (full service world cities) 12: London, New York, Paris, Tokyo 10: Chicago, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan, Singapore B. BETA WORLD CITIES (major world cities) 9: San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Zurich 8: Brussels, Madrid, Mexico City, Sao Paulo 7: Moscow, Seoul C. GAMMA WORLD CITIES (minor world cities) 6: Amsterdam, Boston, Caracas, Dallas, Dsseldorf, Geneva, Houston, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Melbourne, Osaka, Prague, Santiago, Taipei, Washington 5: Bangkok, Beijing, Montreal, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw 4: Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich, Shanghai By 2008 new interlocking model is used & the worlds urban meta geography looks as follows Mega Cities 2005: Landmark year because majority of the worlds population now lives in Cities Mega cities > 8 million Hyper Cities> 25 million City-ized Towns Why over urbanization in global South ? Mike Davis sheds light on this phenomenon Davis central argument is that the adverse impacts of Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) led to over urbanization What is SAP? Bretton Woods Institutions and fiscal crisis of the 80s oil crisis in the 70s poorer countries borrow to pay for increased price of oil unable to pay back by the 80s IMF and IBRD steps in Plus newly independent countries had adopted import substitution industrial model governmental interference deemed wasteful SAP (cont) Rural households devastated: Why? Removed food subsidies even as these subsidies are kept in place in the west Protectionist barriers are removed Green revolution technologies increased burden Urban middle class wiped out especially in Africa because of the restructuring of the public sector Gender implications : desperate ingenuity of women to survive Spatiality of slums Decoupling of urbanization and industrialization : impact on spatiality Scale 78% of the urban population in the LDCs live in slums One third of the worlds urban population lives in slums Quarter of a million slums in the world Slums within slums; Slums in the air
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