Finals Essay Question #10 - Jabreen

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Andre Sorensen

1 Jabareen (2006- Sustainable Urban Form Urban form directly affects habitat, ecosystems, endangered species, and water quality through land consumption, habitat fragmentation, and replacement of natural cover with impervious surfaces. In addition, urban form affects travel behaviour, which, in turn, affects air quality; premature loss of farmland, wetlands, and open space; soil pollution and contamination; global climate; and noise The concept of sustainable development has given a major stimulus to the question of the contribution that certain urban forms might make to lower energy consumption and lower pollution levels This challenge has induced scholars, planners, local and international NGOs, civil societies, and governments to propose supposedly new frameworks for the redesigning and restructuring of urban places to achieve sustainability. These approaches have been addressed on different spatial levels: ( the regional and metropolitan levels, (2) the city level, (3) the community and (4) the building level. Design Concepts of Sustainable Urban Form The thematic analysis has identified seven concepts repeated and significant themes of urban form. 1. Compactness o Compactness is in essence the ability for urban contiguity (and connectivity), which suggests that future urban development should take place adjacent to existing urban structures. o When the concept is applied to existing rather than new urban fabric, it refers to the containment of further sprawl, rather than the reduction of the present sprawl. o Intensification, a major strategy for achieving compactness, uses urban land more efficiently by increasing the density of development and activity. o The intensification of the built form includes development of previously undeveloped urban land, redevelopment of existing buildings or previously developed sites, subdivisions and conversions, and additions and extensions. o Four major themes are evident in current debates on compactness as an important strategy for achieving desirable urban forms. o The first is that a contained and compact city has a corollary of rural protection. o The second theme is related to the promotion of quality of life, including social interactions and ready access to services and facilities. o The third is the reduction of energy consumption by providing building densities capable of supporting district heating or combined heat and power systems. o The fourth is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by minimizing the number and length of trips by modes of transport harmful to the environment. o urban form that is easily walkable, small enough to eliminate even the desire for a private automobile 2. Sustainable Transport
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