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GGRA02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Neoliberalism

Course Code
Michael Ekers
Study Guide

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Geography - the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relation-
ship w/ their environments. Broad # of relations including economic, culture, politics. Key as-
sumptions: 1) nothing natural about the social world (everything is created through relationships)
2) multiple histories & geographies exist & over-layer 3) attention on social & cultural difference
& inequality 4) premised on open or integral analysis
Place - discreet entity (ex. park, neighbourhood, or campus). Comprised of a coherent commu-
nity. Places a role in defining life chances. Provides a setting for people’s daily lives. All pro-
cessess are grounded in some physical location. Affects the character of a range of social, cultur-
al, political & economic processes. Social, cultural, political & economic entity that assumes its
specific character b/c of complex flows & connections that come together in a locale. Layered
meaning reflects the social construction of place. Places subject to change. Focused on location
w/ a recognition of relations that constitute that location.
Globalization - a process and condition that involves increasing interconnectedness of differ-
ent parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political & cultur-
al change. Emerging communication technologies. New governence frameworks. Increased in-
terconnection defines contemporary forms of globalization
Absoulte Space - mathematical space, described through points, boundaries & lines
(ex.maps). Space pre-exists human activity. Despite assumption of objectivity, it can be deeply
political. Broader concept than place
Relational Space - not the container of social activity but rather produced out of social activ-
ity (ex. socially constructed). Involves an appreciation of the multiple processes that contribute
to the geographical configuration & meaning of activity. The spatiality of our lives is subject to
Spatial Practice - refers to the location in which social & economic activity occur & how that
activity produces space. ex. bitumen from N. Alberta or settlements from colonialism (land be-
comes a commodity) - Helen Cowan
Symbolic Space - cultural & symbolic meanings associated w/ distinct spaces (ex. City Hall,
Parliament Buildings, CN Tower or forts & settlements w/ colonialism)
Trans-Atlantic Migration - industrialization in Europe leads to massive assisted settlements
in Canada
Scale - scales of analysis (ex. local, global, national, & international). They are all linked. Pro-
cesses operating in one scale can affect other scales - Knox. Hierarchy of scale (the body, local,
regional, national, international & global). Allows us to zoom our analysis in and out. Core & pe-
riphery relations is scale
Neoliberalism - free market, free trade, individual liberty. Opposed to trade unions. SAPs. In
Haiti = export-orientated products, removal of import tarriffs, low wages, anti union, low taxes,
privatization of agriculture & manufacturing
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