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Final

FINAL REVIEW

25 Pages
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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA02H3
Professor
Michael Bunce

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Property of Delane BoakyeExam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM
Geography Exam Review
Topic 1: Thinking geographically about globalization
Ideologies and discourses of globalization
Pro-globalization: good for the economy and therefore good for people. Increases
trade and integration into the global economy, therefore encourages economic growth
which will trickle down even to poorer countries.
Anti-globalization: increases disparities, environmental degradation, reduces national
sovereignty. Benefits of any global economic growth will trickle up to richer countries,
financiers, global corporations.
Alter-globalization: the idea that globalization can result in positive and negative
outcomes depending on how its constructed, this would involve changing rather than
dismantling globalization. Globalization as a set of political decisions and actions
What does geography have to offer to the study of globalization?
According to Murray, human geography offers a distinctive framework for studying
globalization:
1. Its concern with space, spatial interaction and different scales of activity
2.Human geography peoples (humans, and societies) to discourses of globalization
3.Human geography is an eclectic subject- brings together cultural, environmental,
economic, sociological, political aspects and methods of study.
Six Concepts of Human Geography
1. Space
Absolute space: space, just a container (with boundaries ad/or boarders)
Properties that can define it as something
e.g an empty classroom
Functional space: space defined by the way its used
Relative space: space in terms of meaning in relation to others
e.g our perception of Japan
Cognitive space: the way we experience,perceive and visualize spaces (mind maps)
Metaphoric space: abstract, like the Internet, exists but without physical boarders
Spatiality: how space is produced and reproduced e.g Dubai as a centre of capital and
finance
2. Place
space with meaning to you, based on attachment, or what it means to you
e.g your home
Uniqueness and identity- distinct characteristics that differentiate different places
Interconnection of places- most places dont exist in insolation, they interact with other
places
www.notesolution.com
Property of Delane BoakyeExam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM
Region
Formal: e.g political units such as provinces
Functional: regions defined according to their main activities, e.g tourist regions
Cultural: regions defined according to cultural characteristics like religion or language
3. Location (of activities)
Spatial distribution of activities, population and resources
Proximity and Distance: local/global
Time space compression: ability to move capital
Proximity and distance is socially created
4. Spatial Scale
Hierarchies of sales- from the body to the world
Connections between scales- local places connected to larger scale through
exchanges of g/s
5. Spatial interaction
Flow of g/s, information, and people across space
Interaction between places is the most powerful process of globalization
Time space convergence as a result of globalization
6. Human/Environment Relations
Physical environment as resources and constraint
Global scale processes as environmental problem
Humans has disrupted the scale (overpopulation)
Physical environment regulates human behaviour
Relational Thinking
How we perceive the rest of the world
How we think about our place in the world
Local decisions, global consequences
Topic 2: The Changing Global Context
Key concepts
Colonialism: the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a
state over a separate state
Imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of
the economic and political life of other territories
Fordism: division of labour into different tasks (first half of the 20th C)
Post fordism: decline of the factory, vertical integration, JIT and less importance on
location
Early Roots of globalization (Expansionist civilizations)
Key feature: movement of goods and people-expansionary
Greek and Roman Empire
www.notesolution.com
Property of Delane BoakyeExam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM
long-distance exploration
innovation and trade
war and conquest
Mapping (newly discovered territories): important for global activity
Land clearance and irrigation: increased food supply, and control of the physical env.
First cities: urban civilization became the foundation of modern day civilization, new
spatiality
Islamic Empire (7th-13th C)
Based on trade more than expansion (religious, not territorial expansion)
Early global economy based on trade across Asia, Africa and much of Europe
Rise of Global Capitalism (end of 15th C)
In ancient societies authority, power and the acquisition of territory were the forces of
globalization
Economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private
ownership of the means of production (private property), and the exploitation of the
surplus values of land (resources) and labour.
Acc. Sachs western European capitalist societies have 4 features
1.Economic: economic activities were predominantly organized via market exchange,
based on private property relations in labour, capital, land and ideas
2.Political: based on notions of citizenship and the rule of law
3.Social: abandoned formal structures of hierarchy based on birthright
4.Belief: increasingly secularized and grounded in a modern scientific outlook
WWI shattered global capitalist system based on European imperialism
hyperinflation linked to the Gold standard
By the 1990s almost all of the world had adopted the fundamental elements of a
market economy
private ownership at the core of the economy
a currency convertible for international trade
shared standards for commercial transactions
market based transactions for the bulk of the productive sectors of the
economy
Ages (Stages) of Global Capitalism
1.Age of Exploration (15th-19th C)- discovery, encounter and conquest by European
countries
New lands, colonization, exploitation of resources, trade in commodities (gold, sugar)
2.Age of Enlightenment (15th- 18th C)
Intellectual and artistic liberation
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM Geography Exam Review Topic 1: Thinking geographically about globalization Ideologies and discourses of globalization Pro-globalization: good for the economy and therefore good for people. Increases trade and integration into the global economy, therefore encourages economic growth which will trickle down even to poorer countries. Anti-globalization: increases disparities, environmental degradation, reduces national sovereignty. Benefits of any global economic growth will trickle up to richer countries, financiers, global corporations. Alter-globalization: the idea that globalization can result in positive and negative outcomes depending on how its constructed, this would involve changing rather than dismantling globalization. Globalization as a set of political decisions and actions What does geography have to offer to the study of globalization? According to Murray, human geography offers a distinctive framework for studying globalization: 1. Its concern with space, spatial interaction and different scales of activity 2. Human geography peoples (humans, and societies) to discourses of globalization 3. Human geography is an eclectic subject- brings together cultural, environmental, economic, sociological, political aspects and methods of study. Six Concepts of Human Geography 1. Space Absolute space: space, just a container (with boundaries ad/or boarders) Properties that can define it as something e.g an empty classroom Functional space: space defined by the way its used Relative space: space in terms of meaning in relation to others e.g our perception of Japan Cognitive space: the way we experience,perceive and visualize spaces (mind maps) Metaphoric space: abstract, like the Internet, exists but without physical boarders Spatiality: how space is produced and reproduced e.g Dubai as a centre of capital and finance 2. Place space with meaning to you, based on attachment, or what it means to you e.g your home Uniqueness and identity- distinct characteristics that differentiate different places Interconnection of places- most places dont exist in insolation, they interact with other places www.notesolution.com Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM Region Formal: e.g political units such as provinces Functional: regions defined according to their main activities, e.g tourist regions Cultural: regions defined according to cultural characteristics like religion or language 3. Location (of activities) Spatial distribution of activities, population and resources Proximity and Distance: local/global Time space compression: ability to move capital Proximity and distance is socially created 4. Spatial Scale Hierarchies of sales- from the body to the world Connections between scales- local places connected to larger scale through exchanges of g/s 5. Spatial interaction Flow of g/s, information, and people across space Interaction between places is the most powerful process of globalization Time space convergence as a result of globalization 6. Human/Environment Relations Physical environment as resources and constraint Global scale processes as environmental problem Humans has disrupted the scale (overpopulation) Physical environment regulates human behaviour Relational Thinking How we perceive the rest of the world How we think about our place in the world Local decisions, global consequences Topic 2: The Changing Global Context Key concepts Colonialism: the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate state Imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories Fordism: division of labour into different tasks (first half of the 20th C) Post fordism: decline of the factory, vertical integration, JIT and less importance on location Early Roots of globalization (Expansionist civilizations) Key feature: movement of goods and people-expansionary Greek and Roman Empire www.notesolution.com Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM long-distance exploration innovation and trade war and conquest Mapping (newly discovered territories): important for global activity Land clearance and irrigation: increased food supply, and control of the physical env. First cities: urban civilization became the foundation of modern day civilization, new spatiality Islamic Empire (7th-13th C) Based on trade more than expansion (religious, not territorial expansion) Early global economy based on trade across Asia, Africa and much of Europe Rise of Global Capitalism (end of 15th C) In ancient societies authority, power and the acquisition of territory were the forces of globalization Economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production (private property), and the exploitation of the surplus values of land (resources) and labour. Acc. Sachs western European capitalist societies have 4 features 1. Economic: economic activities were predominantly organized via market exchange, based on private property relations in labour, capital, land and ideas 2. Political: based on notions of citizenship and the rule of law 3. Social: abandoned formal structures of hierarchy based on birthright 4. Belief: increasingly secularized and grounded in a modern scientific outlook WWI shattered global capitalist system based on European imperialism hyperinflation linked to the Gold standard By the 1990s almost all of the world had adopted the fundamental elements of a market economy private ownership at the core of the economy a currency convertible for international trade shared standards for commercial transactions market based transactions for the bulk of the productive sectors of the economy Ages (Stages) of Global Capitalism 1. Age of Exploration (15th-19th C)- discovery, encounter and conquest by European countries New lands, colonization, exploitation of resources, trade in commodities (gold, sugar) 2. Age of Enlightenment (15th- 18th C) Intellectual and artistic liberation www.notesolution.com Property of Delane Boakye Exam Date: April 28th 7-9PM GYM Scientific invention and discovery New philosophies e.g human relations with nature New technologies More exploration and trade This era was not very enlightened because: Slavery and indentured labour (the first great global diaspora) Destruction of indigenous civilizations by war and European diseases Imposition of European culture and political systems Displacement of subsistent agriculture by commercial plantations (space) Resource degradation- deforestation, soil erosion 3. Age of Empires (18th-20th C)/ The Great Global Carve Up Establishment of the British (French, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish) colonial empires and followed by the American empire in the late 19th C European powers had a lot of control over much of the world (and its resources) Provided raw materials and capital for the growth of the European industrial system Foundation of industrialism (access to labour, resources and landed) Age of Industrialism (18th + 19th C) Age of capital; the first IR Exchange (market) economy New labour markets: growth in demand for industrial workers Massive increase in capital investment New sources of energy - steam power, led to new locations for manufacturing based on best sites in relation to sources of coal. Global sourcing of raw materials and labour New modes of transportation led to new patterns of spatial interaction Urbanization - new centers of commerce and industry. New spatialities, i.e. newly constructed and produced spaces of industrialism Social and Environmental consequences The development of cities changed peoples relationship with the environment. We were no longer drawing from the land directly People became a part of the exchange economy (no connection to the land) Transformed human-nature relations: Rural to urban migration separated people from direct relationships with land and natural resources Environmental degradation: pollution, deforestation, soil erosion, urban health problems Exploitation of labour the core of industrial capitalism and the factory system Socio-economic disparity between owners of capital and the workers (proletariat). Led to social and political unrest and ultimately revolution in Russia Second Industrial Revolution (first half of the 20th C) Mass production www.notesolution.com
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