[GGRA03H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (28 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2017
School
UTSC
Department
Geography
Course
GGRA03H3
UTSC
GGRA03H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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GGRA03: Lecture 1 & 2 - ‘Nature’ and ‘The City’. January 2nd, 2017 & January 10th, 2017.
Course Objectives:
Have a better understanding of how social, economic and ecological processes shape
the environments of cities.
Be able to identify how urbanization and urban lifestyles shape environments far
beyond the borders of ‘the city’.
We must explore the complex web of relationships that cities have with spaces
and places outside their borders.
Have learned the key skills of how to find information, assess information, and then write
and think critically about it.
Be excited and interested in geographical thinking as an amazing set of tools to help you
make sense of the world around you.
Lecture 2 Questions:
1. What are ‘cities’ and how did we come to live in them?
2. Secondly, how are we to understand the relationship between cities and nature?
Being Urban:
Cities as we know them are thought to have been developed 10,000 - 14,000 years ago.
We have been urban for 5% of humankind’s history.
The oldest city, Jericho, dates back to 9000 - 8000 BCE.
The world’s oldest cities have been found where is now the Middle East, with evidence
in India, Mesoamerica and elsewhere.
Cities developed independently in different parts of the world as humans found ways to
settle in one place.
Cities did not have one place of origin.
The Agricultural Revolution:
The development of agriculture gave people the ability to produce food rather than move
nomadically in search of it.
It’s a major reason why humans have been able to create permanent, large,
complex settlements like cities.
The development of agriculture also allowed humans to produce more food, in large
enough proportions to be able to feed larger populations.
Agriculture: is the domesticating of various species of plants and animals for
cultivation in one place.
The release of people from searching and gathering food made way for the
specialization of other skills and tasks by locals.
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Craftsmanship (welding, masonry, textile making), governance and bureaucracy,
engineering, writing, literature and science.
Other Early Urban Settlements:
Mesopotamia - 3500 BC
Egypt - 3300 BC
Potentially spread from Mesopotamia.
Indus Valley - Harappan civilization, 2500 BC
Yellow river area in China - Shang civilization, 1800 BC
Mesoamerica - 200 BC
The Demographic Definition of a City:
A city: is a large urban settlement with a dense population.
There are two attributes to the demographic definition:
Population size: Cities are with large numbers of people living within a given
territory.
Population density: Cities are often places with a higher number of residents
within a certain area (e.g. within a km2).
Differing Definitions of a City:
Cities range greatly in size, form and population,
The exact size and density of a city can vary, and each country tends to define a ‘city’ or
‘urban area’ using different metrics.
In the USA, an ‘urban area’ is any settlement with over 2,500 people.
In India, an ‘urban area’ is any settlement with over 5,000 people.
The population density of various cities and urban areas can also vary very significantly.
Houston, Texas: 1,301.8/ km2
Kolkata, India: 24,000/ km2
The Legal Definition of a City:
A city: can be defined legally as territorial units of governance, which have distinct
boundaries and have particular powers to govern, tax, and protect the population.
The City of Toronto is a territorial unit brought into being by the City of Toronto Act
(2006).
The Definition of a City as ‘Transformed Nature’:
A city: is a locale produced through the intensive transformation of nature by human
labor.
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Document Summary

Ggra03: lecture 1 & 2 - nature" and the city". Have a better understanding of how social, economic and ecological processes shape the environments of cities. Be able to identify how urbanization and urban lifestyles shape environments far beyond the borders of the city". We must explore the complex web of relationships that cities have with spaces and places outside their borders. Have learned the key skills of how to find information, assess information, and then write and think critically about it. Be excited and interested in geographical thinking as an amazing set of tools to help you make sense of the world around you. Cities as we know them are thought to have been developed 10,000 - 14,000 years ago. We have been urban for 5% of humankind"s history. The oldest city, jericho, dates back to 9000 - 8000 bce.

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