Urban Sprawl, Smart Growth, Path Dependence GGRA03 Lecture 11 November 23
Potential Exam Questions
What is Sprawl?
What outlines the major arguments for urban sprawl?
What was the main policy in smart growth?
Sprawl huge debate in Toronto region (examples?)
What kind of cities do we want to build?
What is a good urban environment, what patterns do we have?
How do we want to change it?
What have been the results from policies so far and what can be do better?
(Differing opinions about what is a good city/living environment)
*United States: managing Urban Growth
Garbage incinerators! Pros and cons?
“A form of urbanization distinguished by leapfrog of development, commercial strips, low
density, separated land uses, automobile dominance, and a minimum of public open space”
– Gillham (2002)
Leapfrog new urban development that is jumping over undeveloped land (doesn’t apply in
Commercial strips highways
Low density live in areas in which you need to drive to go shop or go to school (country
side) middle of green fields
Automobile dependent development use car for everything therefore very energy intensive
and contributes to global warming, increasing gas prices *CONGESTION! Ever increasing
number of trips therefore impossible to build enough road space
Why did this new urban form develop?
Rapid car ownership (e.g. more cars than people on the roads in US)
Lack of use of public transit because people find their cars more convenient so the
government doesn’t bother putting money into transit because no one uses it (Note: public
transit itself is expensive)
Housing costs are high in cities with raising issues such as racism (e.g. United States
inner = black people and other suburbs = white people)
Major Arguments against sprawl
High cost one of the strongest argument; for housing in remote locations, cost for
services are all higher but lower land costs means housing is cheaper. WHO PAYS? Shift in
balance of private costs and public costs. Public costs such as schools, hospitals, roads and
emergency services are much higher. Higher social costs are not the developers concern.
Local governments get stuck with bill.