14. According to David Harvey how can the Universal Declaration of human rights be mobilized to make
universal claims upon globalization?
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broadened in scope, in ways that are sympathetic to the right to be different or the right to the
production of space. Any strict and narrow interpretation of human rights must be contested. Respect
for the cultures of differing groups is just as important as respect for individuals. An example is that of
On the one hand they appeal repeatedly and powerfully to the concept of dignity and the universal right
to be treated with respect. On the other hand they make claims based on locality, embeddedness and
cultural history which emphasize their unique and particular standing as a socio-ecological group.
Since 1948, the application of human rights havUÁv^]À]ov}o]]o]PZ_v
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both groups of rights.
The contradictions of globalization offer opportunities for an alternative progressive politics. First, there
is widespread demand for reform of the system given its instabilities and economic inequalities. Second,
environmental difficulties are apparent everywhere and require the involvement of multiple scales
(from local level to global). Thirdly, the spread of Western ways of thinking about self-fulfillment and
self-realisation has released a set of powerful forces of mounting economic, social and cultural
It should be recognized how variations in different localities are part of some family of meanings, rather
than being completely separate and different.
widespread views, especially neoliberalism. It was noted that the more controversy over what formula
to use to calculate minimum wages, and the more alternative formulas presented, the better. By
drawing the industry and public into debate over which formula to adopt forces issues of a living wage,
to be put at the forefront of political agenda, exactly the same way that the UDHR in 1948 placed certain
issues about human rights in the global agenda.
The right to uneven geographical development, to build different forms of human association through
different laws, rules and customs at a variety of scales, should be considered a fundamental human right
The UN declaration of 1992 focuses on minority rights, where it is said that there is a movement
towards the internationalization of environmental, resource, humanitarian and rights issues, while at
the same time there is an emergence of ethnocentrism, hatred of diversity, etc.
Recognizing that societies will become more diverse, the UN declaration of 1992 illustrates one of the
ways where the idea of rights can be extended to deal with uneven geographical development.
The Universal declaration of human rights must consider all scales. Human rights must be redefined.
Rights must be taken, established, or earned through struggle. These rights may sometimes oppose
The right to uneven geographical development will safeguard equality between all humans in society.
]v]µ]}vo(u_}]vP}PZZ]µlar and the universal, on a world stage that takes into
account uneven geographical development.