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Farmer notes


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRB28H3
Professor
Mark Hunter

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CHAPTER 2 - RETHINKING EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Emerging infectious diseases:
oAIDS & Brazilian purpuric fever (i.e., new diseases)
o Hantaan virus [which spread beyond Asia as a result of ecological and
economic transformations increasing the contact btw humans and rodents],
Lyme disease, hemorrhagic fevers (i.e., old diseases that have somehow
changed, either in pathogenicity or distribution)
oMultidrug-resistant TB and Group A streptococcal infection (flesh eating
bacteria)
Virologists noted that the emergence of a newly recognized or novel diseases is rarely
a purely virological event without identifiable, causative co-factors: ecological
changes, human demographic changes and behaviour, travel and commerce,
technology and industry, microbial adaptation and change, and breakdown of public
health measures
Even in cases of microbial mutations, we often find signs that human actions have
played a large role in enhancing pathogenicity or increasing resistance to
antimicrobial agents
Of all emerging viral infections, only the emergence of Rift Valley fever is attributed
to a possible change in virulence/pathogenicity
Malaria is known as a tropical disease but not too long ago, malaria was a
significant problem far from the tropics (e.g., US)
o Tropical medicine implies a geographic rather than a social topography
Many tropical diseases predominantly afflict the poor; the groups a risk for these
diseases are often bounded more by SES than by latitude
The health transitions (or the new public health) model suggests that nation-
states, as they develop, go through predictable epidemiologic transformations
The limitations of these three important ways of viewing the health of populations
the concepts of tropical medicine, health transitions, and national health profiles
demonstrate that models and even assumptions about infections diseases need to be
dynamic, systemic, and critical
oThe study of anything said to be emerging tends to be dynamic
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