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GGRC33H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Sustainable City, Ville Radieuse, Brownfield Land


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRC33H3
Professor
Andre Sorensen
Study Guide
Final

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Jabareen (2006- Sustainable Urban Form
Urban form directly affects habitat, ecosystems, endangered species, and water quality
through land consumption, habitat fragmentation, and replacement of natural cover with
impervious surfaces.
In addition, urban form affects travel behaviour, which, in turn, affects air quality;
premature loss of farmland, wetlands, and open space; soil pollution and
contamination; global climate; and noise
The concept of sustainable development has given a major stimulus to the question of the
contribution that certain urban forms might make to lower energy consumption and lower
pollution levels
This challenge has induced scholars, planners, local and international NGOs, civil
societies, and governments to propose supposedly new frameworks for the redesigning
and restructuring of urban places to achieve sustainability.
These approaches have been addressed on different spatial levels: (1) the regional and
metropolitan levels, (2) the city level, (3) the community and (4) the building level.
Design Concepts of Sustainable Urban Form
The thematic analysis has identified seven concepts— repeated and significant themes of
urban form.
1.Compactness
oCompactness is in essence the ability for urban contiguity (and connectivity),
which suggests that future urban development should take place adjacent to
existing urban structures.
oWhen the concept is applied to existing rather than new urban fabric, it refers to
the containment of further sprawl, rather than the reduction of the present sprawl.
oIntensification, a major strategy for achieving compactness, uses urban land more
efficiently by increasing the density of development and activity.
oThe intensification of the built form includes development of previously
undeveloped urban land, redevelopment of existing buildings or previously
developed sites, subdivisions and conversions, and additions and extensions.
oFour major themes are evident in current debates on compactness as an
important strategy for achieving desirable urban forms.
oThe first is that a contained and compact city has a corollary of rural protection.
oThe second theme is related to the promotion of quality of life, including social
interactions and ready access to services and facilities.
oThe third is the reduction of energy consumption by providing building densities
capable of supporting district heating or combined heat and power systems.
oThe fourth is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by minimizing the
number and length of trips by modes of transport harmful to the environment.
ourban form that is easily walkable, small enough to eliminate even the desire for a
private automobile
2.Sustainable Transport
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oUrban form must be a form and scale appropriate to walking, cycling, and
efficient public transport and must have a compactness that encourages social
interaction.
oIt must enable access to the facilities and services of the city while minimizing the
resulting external costs.
oSustainable transportation is defined as transportation services that reflect
the full social and environmental costs of their provision; that respect
carrying capacity; and that balance the needs for mobility and safety with the
needs for access, environmental quality, and neighbourhood livability
owhen the physical separation of activities is smaller, travel needs are likely to be
lower and easily met by walking, cycling, and environmentally friendly transport.
oNew urbanism often argue that car use will decline in neighbourhoods designed
with more pedestrian-friendly features, such as a connected street layout, more
mixed use, high enough densities to more closely group some commercial and
residential development, and traffic calming.
3.Density
oDensity is a critical typology in determining sustainable urban forms. It is the
ratio of people or dwelling units to land area.
oDensity and dwelling type affect sustainability through differences in the
consumption of energy; materials; and land for housing, transportation, and urban
infrastructure
oHigh density and integrated land use not only conserve resources but provide for
compactness that encourages social interaction.
oDensity is the single most important factor associated with transit use, for instance
as density increases automobile ownership declines, similarly transit use increases
with density.
oIn a sample of eleven large metropolitan areas, the density of nearby housing
strongly influenced commuter mode choices. Holding constant the mix of land
uses, residents of higher density areas were more likely to commute by transit,
walking, bicycling, or combinations thereof, and less likely to drive, than people
who live in lower-density areas.
4.Mixed Land Uses
oMixed land use indicates the diversity of functional land uses such as residential,
commercial, industrial, institutional, and those related to transportation. Reducing
the need for travel is on the agenda of achieving sustainable urban form, and
mixed land use has a prominent role in achieving it. Mixed land use reduces the
probability of using a car for commuting, shopping, and leisure trips, since jobs,
shops, and leisure facilities are located nearby
oIn addition, mixed use of space can renew life in many parts of the city and in turn
enhance security in public spaces for disadvantaged groups
osustainable urban form, mixed uses should be encouraged in cities, and zoning
discouraged
5. Diversity
oDiversity of activity is essential to the sustainability of cities.
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oJane Jacobs (1961) popularized the diversity dimension, subsequently adopted
and widely accepted by many planning approaches, such as new urbanism, smart
growth, and sustainable development. Lack of concentrated diversity can put
people into automobiles for almost all their needs.
oFor Jacobs, diversity is vital; without it, the urban system declines as a living
place and a place to live. – This means, the use of walking, public transport, cars,
mix used
oThere are some similarities between diversity and mixed land uses; however,
diversity is “a multidimensional phenomenon that promotes further desirable
urban features, including greater variety of housing types, building densities,
household sizes, ages, cultures, and incomes
oDiverse development contains a mixture of land uses, building and housing types,
architectural styles, and rents.
6. Passive Solar Design
oPassive solar design is central to achieving a sustainable urban form. Generally,
the idea of this design is to reduce the demand for energy and to provide the best
use of passive energy in sustainable ways through specific design measures.
oThis design affects the form of the built environment through, for example, the
orientation of buildings and urban
odensities
oIt is assumed that design, siting, orientation, layout, and landscaping can make the
optimum use of solar gain and microclimatic conditions to minimize the need for
space heating or cooling of buildings by conventional energy sources
oInteraction between energy systems and urban structure takes place at all spatial
scales from the regional, city, and neighbourhood to the individual building
7.Greening
oGreening of the city, or green urbanism, appears to be an important design
concept for the sustainable urban form. Green space has the ability to contribute
positively to some key agendas in urban areas, including sustainability
oGreening seeks to embrace nature as integral to the city itself and to bring nature
into the life of city dwellers through a diversity of open landscapes
oThere are many other benefits from greening urban spaces.
o(1) contributions to maintenance of biodiversity through the conservation and
enhancement of the distinctive range of urban habitats
o(2) amelioration of the physical urban environment by reducing pollution,
moderating the extremes of the urban climate, and contributing to cost-effective
sustainable urban drainage systems
o(3) contributions to sustainable development to improve the image of the urban
area
o(4) improvement of the urban image and quality of life
o(5) increasing the economic attractiveness of a city and fostering community pride
Urban Form- (four models of sustainable urban forms)
1.Neotraditional Development
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