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Finals Essay Question #8 - Miller & Soberman

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Andre Sorensen
Study Guide

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SHORT ANSWER Q.: Miller, E. & R. SobermanTravel Demand and Urban Form”
Miller & Soberman (2003) describe transportation and land use as a “two-way, chicken-and-
egg relationship”:good” transit can be provided cost-effectively only where land use patterns
permit, but transit-supportive areas can be built only if transit service is provided. They examine
recent transportation trends in the Central Ontario Zone (COZ), including increased car
dependence, and recommend a series of “smart growth building blocks to alter travel behaviour
and vehicle choices. Finally, they identify the barriers to implementing these recommendations
and suggest some short-term measures to deal with congestion, support transit, and slow down
urban sprawl.
BODY – Use any parts of the following…picking 3 of the headings and discussing each part
briefly would be a good idea.
1. Relationship b/w Travel Demand and Urban Form
Land-use patterns (defined by built urban form) travel patterns appropriate,
cost-effective transportation services
Accessibility is key (see p. 6)
2-way, chicken-&-egg relationship:competitive, high-quality transit can be
provided cost-effectively only where land-use patterns support such services, but
such transit-supportive built forms can only be built if the appropriate transit
service is provided (p. 6)
The “appropriate role” of the automobile is quite perplexing: mobility is
countered by adverse impacts including congestion & pollution
Drawbacks of over-dependence on the automobile are becoming more apparent;
environmental, social, & economic sustainability of car-oriented urban form has
been put into question
Need to “tame the automobile”; the consequence of Downs Law must be
considered; there are common alternatives to using the car
Movement of goods & delivery of services is a problem as modal options are
extremely limited
Actual development patterns are often inconsistent w/ municipal sustainability /
smart growth policies
Lack of regard for transportation-urban form interaction manifests itself in a
development approval process that allows dispersed, piecemeal development, an
unquestioning acceptance of car-based urban design, and an inability to think
creatively about improving the sustainability of the transportation system (p. 10).
2. Trends in Urban Travel Demand & their Links to Regional Structure
Land-use patterns and street/building designs need to better accommodate non-
motorized forms of transit (p. 12)
Over the last few decades, the number trips made per person per day has steadily
increased due to smaller household sizes, the tendency to drive children to school,
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