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Terms covered from the midterm to the final exam

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Natalie Rothman
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HISA04- Final Exam Key Terms
Lecture 11
Chinggis Khan (r. 1206 – 1227): Chinggis Khan was the first ruler of the Mongol Empire,
during the years of 1206 – 1277. Originally known as Temujin, Khan became known as Chinggis
Khan when the Mongol tribal assembly recognized him as such in 1206. From this Khan
launched his first attack in 1209 on the agricultural societies south of Mongolia. From this first
attack, set in motion the construction of the Mongol Empire and the conquest of China, Korea,
Central Asia, Russia, much of the Islamic Middle East, and parts of Eastern Europe.
Khubilai Khan (r. 1271 – 1294): Khubilai Khan was the grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruled
from 1271 to 1294. As ruler, he ordered a set of Chinese-style ancestral tablets to honour his
ancestors and posthumously awarded them Chinese names. As well, his politics evoked many
Chinese benevolent ideas such as improving roads, building canals, lowered some taxes,
patronized scholars and artist, limited the death penalty and torture, supported peasant
agriculture, and prohibited Mongols form grazing their animals on peasants’ farms. All of this
showing a change in the original idea of Mongol politics seemingly for the better.
Giovanni de Pian-Del Campria (1180 – 1252): Giovanni de Pian-Del Campria was an explorer
who travelled to Mongolia. In his recordings, he commented on the women of Mongolia stating
that they did things that men were only doing back in Europe. This represented a social change
amidst the Mongol Empire for women that would be later transfused to those nations that they
Marco Polo (ca. 1254 – 1324): Marco Polo was a Venetian trade who travelled to China using
the Mongol routes. During his time in China/Mongolia Marco Polo set himself alongside the
Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan, as a useful resource that the Khan could use. From Marco Polo’s
document on his travels were people able to follow his path and establish trade between Europe
and Asia.
Mongolia: Mongolia is the steppe lands to the north of China, in which the Mongols had set up
their nomadic way of life. Mongolia became the Mongol empire during the 13th and 14th
centuries and rose to power during this time. The significance of Mongolia was that it showed
how a small nation can overcome all odds and rise to nearly conquer the entire known world.
Karkorum: Karkorum became the Mongol’s capital for their Empire. Many crafters, women,
and children were sent to this city in order to populate the city, and make it grander. The
significance of this was that Karkorum became the base operations for Mongol trade during the
time of the Mongol Moment
Khanbaliq/Yuandadu: Khanbaliq or Dadu refers to a city which is now Beijing, the current
capital of the People's Republic of China. The city was called Dadu or Tatu, meaning "great
capital" or "grand capital" in Chinese, the name for the capital of the Yuan Dynasty founded by
Kublai Khan in China, and was called Daidu by the Mongols, which was a transliteration directly
from the Chinese.

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Steppe diplomancy: Steppe diplomancy was how the Mongols managed there ruling during
their time as an Empire. The steppes of lands held great importance to them as it proved them
with a place to raise their livestock as well as maintain their previous nomadic lifestyle. The
diplomancy called for displays of personal courage in battle, combined with intense loyalty to
allies, a willingness to betray others to improve one’s position and the ability to entice other
tribes into cooperative relationships. The significance of this was it was responsible for bringing
together all Mongol tribes into a single confederation
Pax Mongolica: The Pax Mongolica or "Mongol Peace" is a phrase coined by Western scholars
to describe the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural
and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in
the 13th and 14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and
commerce the unified administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that
followed the Mongol's vast conquests. The term was coined in parallel to Pax Romana.
Social boundaries: Social boundaries played a big during the Mongol Moment because the
Mongols were seen by the conquered as a lower lesser class. This caused a great upset among the
conquered nations, especially China, who were used to their high class ways of life, and were
sent down to the social standing where the Mongols were before.
Lecture 12
Emperor Yongle: Emperor Yongle ruled from 1402 to 1422, he compiled over 11000 volumes of
previous documents are compiled them into writings on history, geography, ethics, government,
and more. He also relocated the capital to Beijing and ordered the building of a magnificent
imperial residence known as the Forbidden city, and the Temple of Heaven where subsequent
rulers performed Confucian-based rituals.
Zheng He: Zheng He (1371–1435), he was a Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet
admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and East Africa, collectively
referred to as the travels of "Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean" (or "Zheng He to the Western
Ocean", from 1405 to 1433.
Luo Guanzhang: He was a Chinese writer attributed with writing Romance of the Three
Kingdoms, and editing Water Margin, two of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese
Louis XIV: (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as the Sun King (French: le Roi
Soleil), was King of France and of Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at
the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days, and is the longest
documented reign of any European monarch. Louis began personally governing France in 1661
after the death of his prime minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the theory of
the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin and lack of temporal restraint of
monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed
from the capital. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France
and, by compelling the noble elite to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in

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pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion
during Louis' minority.
Nobles of the Sword/ Nobles of the Robe: Nobles of the Robe were French aristocrats who
owed their rank to judicial or administrative posts — often bought outright for high sums. As a
rule, these positions did not grant the holder with a title (count, duke, baron, etc), but were
honorary positions almost always attached to a specific office (judge, councillor, etc). The office
was often hereditary and by 1789, most Nobles of the Robe had inherited their position. They
were the opposite of the "Nobles of the Sword" whose nobility was based on their families'
traditional function as the military class, and whose titles were customarily attached to a fiefdom
under the feudalist system. Together with the older nobility, Nobles of the Robe made up the
Second Estate in pre-revolutionary France.
Leonardo Da Vinci: April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: painter, sculptor,
architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist,
cartographer, botanist and writer. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the
Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equalled only by his powers of
invention. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the
most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the
scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us
superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote”. Marco Rosci points out, however, that
while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical
rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time.
Ming Dynasty: The Ming Dynasty, or anachronistically referred to as Empire of the Great Ming,
was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led
Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in
human history”, was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans. Although the Ming capital
Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng who established the Shun Dynasty, which
was soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, regimes loyal to the Ming throne
(collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. Ming rule saw the construction of a
vast navy and a standing army of one million troops. Although private maritime trade and official
tribute missions from China had taken place in previous dynasties, the tributary fleet under the
Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He in the 15th century far surpassed all others in size. There were
enormous construction projects, including the restoration of the Grand Canal and the Great Wall
and the establishment of the Forbidden City in Beijing during the first quarter of the 15th
century. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million
Chinese Maritime Exploration: Referred to the Zheng He’s exploration of the surrounding
oceans. This caused a trade between the Muslims of Africa/Middle East and Europeans which
further set up trade between the nations for years to come.
Printing Press: The Printing Press revolutionized the world as we know it. It provided a vast
amount of books such as the Bible would allow religions to further advertise their religion, it
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