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HISA04 - Final Exam Terms Guide

Course Code
Natalie Rothman
Study Guide

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HISA04 – Final Exam Review
Final Exam: Key Terms
Lecture 11: The Mongol Moment
(Strayer 521 – 549)
[Primary Doc: Strayer: 550 – 559]
-Chinggis Khan (r.1206-1227)
oHis name meansUniversal Ruler”
oFounder, ruler and emperor of the Mongol Empire
Also known as Temujin
Mongol Empire is the largest contiguous empire in history
oBorn into Mongols as unstable and factitious collection of tribes and clans
Temujin’s small family were social outcasts
Lived in the lowest level of nomadic life because their
family had no live stock, only hunted, fished and gathered
oTemugin’s Character:
Personal magnetism, courage and trusted friends rather than
Did not have a clan but had a band of followers that recognized
him as choief
He worked his way up tribal politics of Mongolia
o1206: Mongol tribal assembly recognized him as Chinggis Khan
Supreme leader of a unifed Great Mongol Nation
To keep the Mongols unified, Chinggis looked to expand
toward China:
oGave the new unified tribes a common task and
external resource to reward his followers
oMongol Empire (with help by his sons and grandsons)
Constructed an empire of China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia and
much of Islamic Middle east and parts of Eastern Europe
Made all the leaders share in the same hardships as their men
‘whoever submits shall be spared, but those who resit, they shall be
destroyed with their wives, children and dependents
destroyed entire populations if they appeared too

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troublesome to govern
Broke down traditional clan-based division and arranged army into
inter-etchnic group:
Members of Arban were loyal to one-another regardless of
ethnic origin
oNear death
Appealed to Daoist master from China to find a means of
preserving life
-Khubilai Khan (r. 1271-1294)
oGrandson of Chinggis Khan
Ordered Chinese-style ancestral tables to honor his ancestors and
posthumously gave them chinese names
oMany of his policies reflected values of a Chinese emperor
Improving roads, building canals, lowering taxes, patronixing
scholars and artists, limiting the death penalty and tortue,
supported peasant agriculture and prohibited Mongols from
graxing their animals on peasants’ farmland
-Giovanni da Pian del Caprine (1180-1252)
o13th century European visitor to Mongolia
Franciscan friar
oImpression of Mongol women:
Horse riding
They ride as skilful as men
Carry quivers and bows
Making stuff:
They make everything: skin clothes, shoes, leggings,
everything from leather
-Marco Polo (ca. 1254-1324)
oVenetian trader who travelled through Mongol domains in 13th century
Saw that the Mongols had an effective system of relay stations
About 10, 000 stations with 200, 000 horses

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oPrior to Chinggis Khan’s rule:
Filled with shifting nomadic alliances
Reduced from its
Tribal based society, generally nomads
oAfter Chinggis Khan:
Decline in tribalism
Created a military force that was discipline and loyal to
their leaders
oMongol Empire:
Contained China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, Islamic Middle East
and part of Eastern Europe
Organized the Mongol armies to be very disciplined
Small population with little technological advantage
Advantage was organization
Incorporated conquered peoples into their military forces
Nomads conscripted into cavalry unites of the army
Agricultural peoples supplied infantry and artillery
Military effectiveness
Ruthless brutality and utter destructiveness
Effective transportation
Human and material resources transportation
Elaborate Census
Allowed leaders to know what was available
Allowed for systematic taxation of conquered people
Appealed to the conquered people
Mongol rulers offered merchants 10% above asking price
Allowed Chinese and Muslim to positions in politics
Welcome and supported religions as long as it didn’t
become the focus of political opposition
oThe capital of the Mongol Empire
Where of centralize bureaucracy and specialized offices emerged
oA cosmopolitan city with places of worship for Buddhists, Daoists,
Muslims and Christians
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