key terms - final exam (history).docx

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22 Apr 2012
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Modernity:
- typically refers to post-traditional
- refers to the intellectual culture
- refers to the relations associated with the rise of capitalism
- 4 themes expressed in this course when looking at the modern societies in
Asia:
o popular culture
o medicine
o women and gender politics
o visual culture and technology
- Stuart Hall discuss 4 features of modern societies:
1. there must be dominance of political power and authority, conceptions of
sovereignty and legalization operating within territorial boundaries
2. decline of traditional social order
3. decline of religious world-view of traditional societies and the rise of
materialistic and secular culture
4. has an economy based on large-scale consumption and production of
commodities in the market, long-term accumulation of capital; class
formations emerge in capitalist countries
Meiji Restoration:
- 1868
- refers to the restoration of the Meiji (1867-68)
- end of Tokugawa regime (seized Tokugawa lands and placed them under
colonial control)
- shifted from Shogunate to imperial family Emperor Meiji
- known as the enlightened rule, also known as Revolution aristocratic
- goal was to combine western advances with traditional eastern values
- accelerated in industrialization
- made education compulsory
- eliminated the status system
o old elite regime (no longer wear swords, couldn’t execute commoners
who disrespected them)
- rise of military power 1905
- growing world power: successful victories Russo-Jap War and the Sino-Jap
War
o Russo-Jap war was really important because it was their first time
since the Mongol invasion of Europe that an asain nation obtained a
major victory against European power
o The only non-western imperial power
- monarch was at the center
- experienced political unification and central bureaucracy
- restore imperial rule to strengthen Japan against colonial threats
Tongdo Sogi:
- means eastern way and Western technology
- slogan: eastern ways, Western machines
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- eastern spirit, western technique
- they saw Western technology > great potential
Nagaski:
- capital of the largest city of the island in Japan
- known for treaty ports in Nagaski
- connected to the Posnadik incident 1860
- first demand for modern venereal disease testing in Japan
- Russian sailors > harassed Nagaski women when they arrived > complained
> Russian commander asked for the sailors to have pleasure quarters
(authorized brothels) > requested they have genital examinations for syphilis
> wanted to appease the Russian > compromise > special brothel for sailors;
in exchange: twice the payment; selected girls moved to the brothels and
checked regularly
- Turned to Dutch studies by Pompe van Meedervoot
- Came up with high rise chair (eye level correct > avoid making it personal)
- Opened more brothels
- Said the examinations were not to just appease the foreigners in the treaty
port but was a necessary and vital technique for the whole of Japan
- Advocated regular venereal disease checks to protect the future of Japan
- Wanted to create a syphilis hospital but abandoned project once Meiji
restoration occurred
Sino-Jap War:
- 1894-95
- secured Korea
- btw China and Japan
Russo-Jap War:
- 1904-05
- over Manchuria and Korea
- btw Russian empire and Japanese empire
Chujotu:
- 1893
- Promotes reproductive health; eases discomfort of pregnancy/childbirth;
alleviates menstrual pain and uterine disease
- Trademark: princess > Chujo (beautiful, gazes down at her happy and
prosperous family
- Target audience: women
o Promotes good wife and wise mother
o Originated from the princess story (stepmom tried to kill princess,
family took her; repaid fujimura with a formula miraculous; secretly
passed on for generations until the founder Tsuma marketed it
o Mother-child bond = central theme
o Symbol of merciful divine intervention
o Reproductive health = female happiness
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