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Final

Final tutorial review


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Study Guide
Final

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Industrialization
1) 1871
2) 1888
3) 1890
4) 1867
5) 1899
6) 1892
7) 1900
8) William II
9) Otto van Bismarck
10) Reichstag
11) Junker Society
12) Dreyfus Affair
13) Third Republic
14) Slave Trade
15) Capitalism vs. Feudalism
16) Constitutional Settlement
17) Imperial Parliament
18) Magyar-German compromise
19) Prussia
20) Britain
21) North vs. South (Europe)
22) West vs. East (global)
23) British trade unionism
24) pre-industrial cottage industry to industrial society
concentrated in cities
25) consumerism
Colonialism/Scramble for Africa
1) Leopold II
2) Multatuli
3) Léopold Sédar Senghor
4) Lord Frederick Lugard
5) British Empire
6) Colonizers: British, Dutch, Belgian, French, German
7) Raw Materials and Slavery (Rubber, Coffee, Sugar)
8) Boer War
9) Hostage Houses
10) Direct/Indirect Rule
11) industrial revolution and commodities
12) colonies/metropole
13) Selborne Memorandum
14) Belgian Congo
15) South Africa
16) Dutch Colonies
17) redrawing of Africa’s map, forced migration
US, Manifest Destiny
1) 1890
2) 1868
3) 1900
4) 1848
5) 1815
6) 1886
7) James Monroe
8) Roosevelt
9) Alfred Mahan
10) John D. Rockefeller
11) Marx
12) Westward Expansion
13) Monroe Doctrine
14) Civil War
15) Indian Wars
16) Yankee Interference
17) Roosevelt Corollary
18) melting pot vs. salad bowl
19) Socialist Labour Party
20) Slavery and Freedom
21) Coastal Areas of US and navy
22) Panama Canal
23) Hawaii
24) Japan
25) Cuba
26) rise in population due to large scale emigration from Europe
Eastern Empire
1) 1895
2) 1868
3) Joseph Chamberlain
4) Empress Ching
5) Matthew Perry
6) Sun Yatsen
7) Meiji Constitution
8) Feudal System
9) Constitutional Monarchy
10) 21 Demands
11) Nagasaki
12) China
13) taxation of raw materials
14) ports
Bismarckian System
1) 1871
2) 1866
3) 1870
4) Bismarck
5) founding of German Empire
6) France
7) Prussia
8) Austria & Hungary
9) Habsburg
10) Russia
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1. Metternich
o German-Austrian politician and statesman and was one of most important diplomats of his era
o major figure in negotiations before and during Congress of Vienna and considered both a paradigm of foreign-policy management and a major figure
in development of diplomatic praxis
o archetypal practitioner of 19th-century diplomatic realism, being deeply rooted in postulates of balance of power
o probably no statesman was so praised, or so reviled, in his own day as Metternich—in one perspective, he was revered as infallible oracle of
diplomatic inspiration; in another, he was loathed and despised as incarnation of spirit of obscurantism and oppression
o Age of Metternich refers to period of European politics in between final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815 and Revolutions of 1848
o after the Congress of Vienna, European powers collectively agreed to maintain the balance of power, which partially consisted of helping to suppress
any internal strife that occurred in any European Empire
o Age of Metternich came to dramatic close as desire for self-determination finally boiled over in Revolutions of 1848, when rebellions occurred in
almost every major European city—apart from France (where the uprisings succeeded in overthrowing the government), the European powers were
generally successful in suppressing the uprising
o however, the governments also had to make important concessions (including dismissal of Metternich himself) that were to lead to rise of nationalism
and unification of Germany and unification of Italy, as well as to slow decline of old Habsburg-dominated Austrian Empire
2. Holy Alliance
o coalition of Russia, Austria, and Prussia created in 1815 at behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, signed by powers in Paris on September 26
o it was to instil Christian values of charity and peace in European political life, but in practice Metternich made it a bastion against revolution
o monarchs of three countries involved used this to band together in order to prevent revolutionary influence (especially from French Revolution) from
entering these nations—it was against democracy, revolution, and secularism
o except for United Kingdom, the Papal States, and Ottoman Empire, all other European states joined
o Holy Alliance was first modern international peacekeeping organization, although it was rooted in their own models of politics
o Alliance is usually associated with Quadruple and Quintuple Alliances, which included the United Kingdom and (from 1818) France with the aim of
upholding the European peace settlement concluded at the Congress of Vienna
o Alliance was conventionally taken to have become defunct with Alexander’s death in 1825
o Holy Alliance also tried to interfere with Latin America, and was stopped by British disapproval and Monroe Doctrine
3. French Revolution & Napoleonic Wars
o French Revolution (1789 – 1799) was period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history
o absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years
o French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal, aristocratic, and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from liberal
political groups and the masses on the streets
o old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights
o French Revolution began in 1789 with convocation of Estates-General in May
o first year of Revolution witnessed members of Third Estate proclaiming Tennis Court Oath in June, assault on Bastille in July, passage of Declaration
of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and epic march on Versailles that forced royal court back to Paris in October
o next few years were dominated by tensions between liberal legislature and conservative monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms
o republic was eventually proclaimed on September 22, 1792
o French Revolutionary Wars started in 1792 and ultimately featured spectacular French victories that facilitated conquest of Italian peninsula, Low
Countries, and most territories west of Rhine—achievements that had defied previous French governments for centuries
o internally, popular sentiments radicalized Revolution significantly, culminating in brutal Reign of Terror from 1793 until 1794
o after the fall of Robespierre and the Jacobins, the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795 and held power until 1799, when it was
replaced by the Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte
o modern era has unfolded in shadow of French Revolution—growth of republics and liberal democracies, spread of secularism, development of
modern ideologies, and invention of total war all mark their birth during Revolution
o subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional
revolutions as modern France took shape
o in following century, France would be governed at one point or another as republic, constitutional monarchy, and two different empires
o the Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon’s French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing
coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815
o as a continuation of wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out an unprecedented scale,
mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription
o French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe, but collapsed rapidly after France’s disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812
o Napoleon’s empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat resulting in restoration of Bourbon monarchy in France
o wars resulted in dissolution of Holy Roman Empire; meanwhile Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain’s
hold over its colonies, providing opening for nationalist revolutions in Latin America
o as a direct result of Napoleonic wars British Empire became foremost world power for next century, thus beginning Pax Britannica
o no consensus exists as to when French Revolutionary Wars ended and Napoleonic Wars begin—(1) possible date is 9 November 1799, when
Bonaparte seized power in France with coup of 18 Brumaire; (2) 18 May 1803 is probably most commonly used date, as this was when a renewed
declaration of war between Britain and France ended the only period of peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814; (3) latest proposed date is 2
December 1804, when Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor
o Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and Second Treaty of Paris
o Napoleonic Wars brought great changes both to Europe and the Americas
o Napoleon had brought most of Western Europe under one rule—an achievement not met since the days of the Roman Empire
o but France’s constant warfare with the combined other major powers of Europe for over two decades finally took it toll
o by end of Napoleonic Wars, France no longer held the role of the dominant power in Europe, as it had since the times of Louis XIV
o the map of Europe changed dramatically in the hundred years following the Napoleonic Era, based not on fiefs and aristocracy, but on the perceived
basis of human culture, national origins, and national ideology
o Bonaparte’s reign over Europe sowed the seeds for the founding of the nation-states of Germany and Italy by starting the process of consolidating
city-states, kingdoms and principalities
o played key role in independence of American Colonies from their European motherlands—conflict significantly weakened authority and military
power of Spanish Empire, especially after Battle of Trafalgar, which seriously hampered contact of viceroyalties with Americans
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