HISB31H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Tokugawa Shogunate, Columbian Exchange, Trading Post
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History Final Review Lectures 17-19 & 21-23
Lecture 17: Charting New Worlds II: Commodities, Production, and Consumption
x Silver and Global Commerce
x SpDLQ¶VVROH$VLDQFRORQ\the Philippines provided a critical link in this emerging
network of global commerce
x Manila, the colonial capital of the Philippines Æ the destination of annual Spanish
shipments of silver
x The Silver was taken from the mines of Bolivia ÆTransported to AcapulcoÆshipped
across the pacific to the Philippines
x Silver transformed much that is touched
x Population of 160,000 people, Potosi became the largest city in the Americans Æ
equivalent in size to London, Amsterdam or Seville
x Its wealthy European elite lived in luxury, with all the goods of Europe and Asia at their
families held the mines
x One SpanLVKSULHVWUHIHUUHGWR3RWRVLDVD³SRUWUDLWRIKHOO´
Trading post Empire:
x A station or store in a sparsely settled area established by traders to barter supplies for
x By 1600, the Portuguese trading post empire was in steep decline
x The small European country was over extended, and rising Asian states such as Japan,
Burma, Mughal India, Persia and the sultanate of Oman actively resisted Portuguese
x Other European countries were unwilling to accept a dominant Portuguese role in the
East India companies:
x More important that the Spanish for spice trade were the Dutch and English
o They entered the Indian Ocean commerce in the 17th century
x Together they quickly overtook and displaced the Portuguese Æmostly by force
x They were militarily and economically stronger than the Portuguese
x Example: during the 16th century the Dutch had become a highly commercialized and
urbanized society, and their business skills and maritime shipping operations were the
envy of Europe
x They then established their own trading post empires Æ The Dutch focused on the
islands of Indonesia and the English on India
x The Dutch took control, not only the shipping but also the production of cloves,
cinnamon, nutmeg and mace.
x There was a lot of bloodshed and enslavement
x Used silver generated profits to defeat hundreds of rival feudal lords and unify the
x Unlike the Spanish, the shoguns aOOLHGZLWKWKHFRXQWU\¶VYLJRURXVPHUFKDQWFODVVWR
develop a market-based economy and to invest heavily in agricultural and industrial
x The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of the animals,
plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and
ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World to New World).
x This exchange of plants and animals transformed European, American, African, and
Asian ways of life.
x New foods became staples of human diets, and new growing regions opened up for
x It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in
all of human history.
x Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large-
scale contact between the Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological
revolution, hence the name "Columbian" Exchange.
Lecture 18: Atlantic Slavery and the African Diasopora
The Black Sea:
x The Black Sea is an inland sea bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is
ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and
x Portuguese name for Saint Thomas
x Country in west Africa
x From the 17th century to the 19th century, the land of current-day Benin was ruled by the
Kingdom of Dahomey.
x The region became known as the Slave Coast during the early 17th century due to the
prevalence of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
x In 1892, with the slave trade banned and regional power diminishing, France took over
the area and renamed it French Dahomey.
x In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, bringing in a democratic
government for the next 12 years.