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midterm notes

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C Pennington
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Lecture 1 John Norquay – Manitoba conservative premier
Railroad issue – farmers hated it
WS Fielding – Nova Scotia premier
Disaffected with confederation
Mowat – 1872-96
Liberal premier of Ontario
Most powerful person after Macdonald
Law clerk
Rivals pre confederation
Advocate of compact theory – province can unmake confed
JCPC agreed -
Jesuit estate act 1888
Honore Mercier (French Catholic) vs. Dalton McCarthy (English Protestant)
1889 debate - McCarthy/rally – Mercier
Macdonald convinced house of commons to let it pass – 188-13
McCarthy – Equal rights association
George Denison – police magistrate (judge) police officer – commander of GG
Pro British, pro war, anti america, hated Americans, more british than British
thought Canada should be part of Imperial Federation – grand imperial parliament in
British did not like his idea, no room for india, not realistic, reflected the views of
1887 leader of libs. Supporter of free trade w/ US, When Blake left office he thought
Laurier could take over – but Laurier was French and catholic – good speaker but too
He needed to do something = unrestricted reciprocity – risky – but it worked as high
tariffs were not creating prosperity
Erastus Wiman
Born in Canada, humble background, journalist/business man, Gm of Dunn co NY
moved there in 1860s
Millionaire, real estate, duke of Stanton Island
Knew he was vain, wanted to be rich and famous, newspaper favourable coverage,
fraud/jailed, thought of as traitor, Canadians did not like him – his philanthropy, broad
views on religion, supported toleration and ethnic diversity, against cruelty to animals
Canadian nationalist – thought we could compete on level playing field
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Commercial union – same tariffs, close political union, - more than just free trade
1880s – popular view – he was like celeb
Goldwin Smith – British intellectual/historian
Lived in Toronto, self proclaimed intellectual of Canada
He liked to disagree with majority opinion
Mansion = AGO
Proponent of political union – we have so many similarities – union of English speaking
1891 – wrote ‘Canada and the Canadian question’ – said that we can’t survive – we
should become American
Loyalty Election of 1891
Macdonald and conservatives in office for 13 yrs
Libs = unrestricted reciprocity
Conservatives not popular – recession – Macdonald wanted tariffs – British patriotism
Farrer –pamphlet how to take over Canada
Manitoba schools question 1896
1890 – lib govt of Manitoba ended catholic school funding
90% Eng Protestant – didn’t want to pay for French catholic schools
Macdonald didn’t do anything
Thomson referred it to JCPC – feds can get involved and over ride 1894
Bowell didn’t know what to do – if he allowed it – protestants would be happy – bit bad
for natl unity – indecision – kicked out of office
Tupper – remedial legislation – restore French catholic schools – unpopular but it was the
right thing to do
Laurier opposed that – knew cons were disintegrating – wanted to be elected – sunny
ways policy
Laurier Boom 1896-1911
Laurier – Lawyer and journalist
Fed MP 1874-1919, Lib leader 1887-1919, PM 1896-1911
First Canadian, special personality, 9th generation French Canadian
1866 – wrote confed will be tomb of French race – got himself established
First Canadian – embodied both cultures
Lived with Scottish – had accent
Laurier was more aristocraticlaurier – compromises with British – navy/boer war
Winning liberal formula = eng/fre co op, economic growth, provincial rights – Laurier
Greenway compromise 1897, Loyalty to Britain, Patronage
Compromise – religious instruction 30 mins/day in protestant school system, catholic
teachers if numbers warranted it, - if more French than English students – instruction in
French – not enough done for catholic – he acquiesced – end of bilingualism
He left national policy as it was
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