Terms covered from the midterm to the final exam

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Department
History
Course
HISA04H3
Professor
Natalie Rothman
Semester
Fall

Description
HISA04- Final Exam Key Terms Lecture 11 Chinggis Khan (r. 1206 1227): Chinggis Khan was the first ruler of the Mongol Empire, during the years of 1206 1277. Originally known as Temujin, Khan became known as Chinggis Khan when the Mongol tribal assembly recognized him as such in 1206. From this Khan launched his first attack in 1209 on the agricultural societies south of Mongolia. From this first attack, set in motion the construction of the Mongol Empire and the conquest of China, Korea, CentralAsia, Russia, much of the Islamic Middle East, and parts of Eastern Europe. Khubilai Khan (r. 1271 1294): Khubilai Khan was the grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruled from 1271 to 1294.As ruler, he ordered a set of Chinese-style ancestral tablets to honour his ancestors and posthumously awarded them Chinese names.As well, his politics evoked many Chinese benevolent ideas such as improving roads, building canals, lowered some taxes, patronized scholars and artist, limited the death penalty and torture, supported peasant agriculture, and prohibited Mongols form grazing their animals on peasantsfarms.All of this showing a change in the original idea of Mongol politics seemingly for the better. Giovanni de Pian-Del Campria (1180 1252): Giovanni de Pian-Del Campria was an explorer who travelled to Mongolia. In his recordings, he commented on the women of Mongolia stating that they did things that men were only doing back in Europe. This represented a social change amidst the Mongol Empire for women that would be later transfused to those nations that they conquered. Marco Polo (ca. 1254 1324): Marco Polo was a Venetian trade who travelled to China using the Mongol routes. During his time in China/Mongolia Marco Polo set himself alongside the Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan, as a useful resource that the Khan could use. From Marco Polos document on his travels were people able to follow his path and establish trade between Europe and Asia. Mongolia: Mongolia is the steppe lands to the north of China, in which the Mongols had set up their nomadic way of life. Mongolia became the Mongol empire during the 13 and 14h th centuries and rose to power during this time. The significance of Mongolia was that it showed how a small nation can overcome all odds and rise to nearly conquer the entire known world. Karkorum: Karkorum became the Mongols capital for their Empire. Many crafters, women, and children were sent to this city in order to populate the city, and make it grander. The significance of this was that Karkorum became the base operations for Mongol trade during the time of the Mongol Moment Khanbaliq/Yuandadu: Khanbaliq or Dadu refers to a city which is now Beijing, the current capital of the People's Republic of China. The city was called Dadu or Tatu, meaning "great capital" or "grand capital" in Chinese, the name for the capital of the Yuan Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan in China, and was called Daidu by the Mongols, which was a transliteration directly from the Chinese. Steppe diplomancy: Steppe diplomancy was how the Mongols managed there ruling during their time as an Empire. The steppes of lands held great importance to them as it proved them with a place to raise their livestock as well as maintain their previous nomadic lifestyle. The diplomancy called for displays of personal courage in battle, combined with intense loyalty to allies, a willingness to betray others to improve ones position and the ability to entice other tribes into cooperative relationships. The significance of this was it was responsible for bringing together all Mongol tribes into a single confederation Pax Mongolica: The Pax Mongolica or "Mongol Peace" is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongol's vast conquests. The term was coined in parallel to Pax Romana. Social boundaries: Social boundaries played a big during the Mongol Moment because the Mongols were seen by the conquered as a lower lesser class. This caused a great upset among the conquered nations, especially China, who were used to their high class ways of life, and were sent down to the social standing where the Mongols were before. Lecture 12 EmperorYongle: Emperor Yongle ruled from 1402 to 1422, he compiled over 11000 volumes of previous documents are compiled them into writings on history, geography, ethics, government, and more. He also relocated the capital to Beijing and ordered the building of a magnificent imperial residence known as the Forbidden city, and the Temple of Heaven where subsequent rulers performed Confucian-based rituals. Zheng He: Zheng He (13711435), he was a Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to SoutheastAsia, SouthAsia, and EastAfrica, collectively referred to as the travels of "Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean" (or "Zheng He to the Western Ocean", from 1405 to 1433. Luo Guanzhang: He was a Chinese writer attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms, and editing Water Margin, two of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. Louis XIV: (5 September 1638 1 September 1715), known as the Sun King (French: le Roi Soleil), was King of France and of Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days, and is the longest documented reign of any European monarch. Louis began personally governing France in 1661 after the death of his prime minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.An adherent of the theory of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin and lack of temporal restraint of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling the noble elite to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. Nobles of the Sword/ Nobles of the Robe: Nobles of the Robe were French aristocrats who owed their rank to judicial or administrative posts often bought outright for high sums.As a rule, these positions did not grant the holder with a title (count, duke, baron, etc), but were honorary positions almost always attached to a specific office (judge, councillor, etc). The office was often hereditary and by 1789, most Nobles of the Robe had inherited their position. They were the opposite of the "Nobles of the Sword" whose nobility was based on their families' traditional function as the military class, and whose titles were customarily attached to a fiefdom under the feudalist system. Together with the older nobility, Nobles of the Robe made up the Second Estate in pre-revolutionary France. Leonardo Da Vinci: April 15, 1452 May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equalled only by his powers of invention. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote. Marco Rosci points out, however, that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time. Ming Dynasty: The Ming Dynasty, or anachronistically referred to as Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history, was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans.Although the Ming capital Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng who established the Shun Dynasty, which was soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, regimes loyal to the Ming throne (collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops.Although private maritime trade and official tribute missions from China had taken place in previous dynasties, the tributary fleet under the Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He in the 15th century far surpassed all others in size. There were enormous construction projects, including the restoration of the Grand Canal and the Great Wall and the establishment of the Forbidden City in Beijing during the first quarter of the 15th century. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million Chinese Maritime Exploration: Referred to the Zheng Hes exploration of the surrounding oceans. This caused a trade between the Muslims ofAfrica/Middle East and Europeans which further set up trade between the nations for years to come. Printing Press: The Printing Press revolutionized the world as we know it. It provided a vast amount of books such as the Bible would allow religions to further advertise their religion, it
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