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Midterm 2 Key Terms

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Jody Cundy

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1HISB10 KEY TERMS MIDTERM 2CHAPTERS 46 CHAPTER 4 SPARTA 1 Ephebe y Originally an ephebe was a boy who had reached the age of puberty Beginning in the late fourth century BC all Athenian boys who were in their eighteenth year had to undergo two years of military training called the Ephebia The boys spent the first year in Athens under the guidance of stateemployed military instructors and the second year as part of the garrisons of several frontier forts In the Hellenistic period the Ephebia changed ceasing to be mandatory at Athens and elsewhere and increasingly focusing on providing boys with a cultural education centered on the gymnasium homoioi similars or peers The Spartan term for full Spartan citizens referring to their common experience in the agoge and the Spartan army 2 Ephor ephoros y Overseer magistrates an office found in Sparta and in other Dorian states In Sparta a board of five ephors was elected annually by the assembly the senior ephor gave his name to the year The ephors had great power in the Spartan state including general control over the kings conduct3 Gerousia y The council of elders from geron old man Term used at Sparta and in other poleis for the aristocratic council The Spartan gerousia consisted of the two kings plus twentyeight men over age sixty who served for life4 Helot y Term for groups of conquered people in Greece forced by their conquerors to work as serfs on their former lands It is most commonly associated with Sparta where helots probably outnumbered citizens by a ratio of seven to one The Spartan way of life both depended on and was formed by the states ownership of thousands of helots in Laconia and Messenia Fear of helot uprisings often discouraged Sparta from engaging in distant campaigns5 Homoioi y Term Spartans used to refer to themselves meaning peers or men of equal status6 Kleros y An allotment of farmland sufficient to support a citizenfamily it was passed on in perpetuity in the male line In oligarchic states full citizenship was frequently tied to the possession of a certain amount of land7 Krypteia y the secret thing A part of the Spartan agoge in which selected young men in their late teens wandered the countryside at night empowered to kill at will helots who seemed less submissive than was expected 8 Lacedaemon y The name Sparta was called in antiquity For much of the archaic and classical periods Sparta was the most powerful city in the Greek world It shared many basic institutions with other poleis society was patriarchal and polytheistic servile labor played a key role agriculture formed the basis of the economy law was revered and martial valor was prized
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