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American History Midterm REVIEW.docx

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American History Mid-Term Review Main Themes in the Course • Racial and Ethical Diversity • The Uncertain Rise of Democracy • Power Racial and Ethical Diversity Summary • Columbus comes from Europe and thinks he is in India. He comes across many indigenous societies in the New World. This, along with other explorers (French, Spanish, English, Dutch, etc.), sparks a lot of diversity throughout the Americas. • The end of the 1840s marked the start of Asian migrants coming over, and people started referring to people by skin color, instead of just age and gender. The Uncertain Rise of Democracy Summary • American history IS the rise of democracy. It was not an easy process when implementing democratic ways, as the founding fathers did not want one. It was thought that a democracy would be a “mob rule” society, so they founded a republic. • It really was only a democracy for Rich white men. Women didn’t get to vote until the 1920, and black people were not equal until the 1960s. Power Summary • Power has changed three ways in American history: between men and women, over economies and work, and ethnic/ racial relations. As men left for work, women would become the head of the household, and the men would work for a large business. • Slavery is another large form of Power within American history. It was the first main form of unpaid work and was a massive trade. Wages would be introduced right before the civil war, as equality and democratic ways were being approached. Colonization Key Terms 1. Chinese boats 2. Europe in the 1400s 3. Aboriginals 4. Gold Roads 5. The Virginia Company 6. Plantation Life 7. Jamestown 8. Mercantilism Chinese Boats: E Europe in the 1400s: Europe was a backwater in the 1400s, as they had a very easygoing society with not much technology. They were not a contender to discovering America at all. They had gone through the Black Death and civil wars, resulting in a weak structured society. The only reason they sailed west was because of the Ottoman Empire controlling the south east of Europe. Aboriginals: Aboriginals ruled the land for 10,000 years. They traveled to North America on a land bridge from Russia. They were then forced into the south because of climate. They were very diverse, and no two tribes were alike (language, rituals, etc.). They were also smarter than Europe at the time, as they had constructed a city of 200,000 people. They also didn’t believe in private land ownership, which caused many problems upon Columbus’ arrival. Gold Roads: Africa had many gold roads that gave them metal and a stable economy much before the Europeans. They were much further ahead than the Europeans technology-wise, but lacked in political structure. The Virginia Company: One of the first ever English Colonies founded in 1607. They started the colonization in the south and made it a major trade market within the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Jamestown: One of the first main cities within continental America. The first people there built a fort right on a swamp, so many of its inhabitants died of malaria. They also failed to find gold or silver and did not farm. They were saved by aboriginals, but mostly by tobacco. They produced enough to trade and grow an economy. Mercantilism: The economic ideology of basically just exporting more than you import, and having high tariffs. You want to make as much money as you can off of this, as Europe was struggling. From Servants to Slaves Key Terms 1. Slave Trade 2. Raids on Africa 3. Caribbean 4. Puritanism 5. New England Slave Trade: It is the largest forced migration ever. 75% of all American Slavery was forced, the rest being indentured servants. West African slaves were sent to Brazil and the Caribbean, and then traded from there or sent right to work. Raids on Africa: African middlemen did the raids. Survivors were marched around 100 miles to the coast and put on ships. They were separated from families and tribes to avoid a revolution. The Royal Africa Company was eventually set up, which sent slaves straight from Africa to the US, instead of having to be traded there. The Caribbean: The English and Dutch controlled most of the Caribbean. Trade was born here such as the slave trade, sugar trade, and indigo trade. The Caribbean was the capital of the slave trade in this era. Virginia would be much later on. Puritanism: Puritans came to Plymouth Rock first, and set up New England. Puritanism was influenced by the reformation of the Church of England. Martin Luther who said that as long as you had faith in god you would obtain salvation also influenced them. John Calvin believed in predetermination, which also grew rapidly in Europe. These two people were very influential to Puritanism and the protestant reformation. Puritans believed that signs of wealth and luckiness were God “electing” you to go to heaven. This takes the ideas of Calvin and Luther. New England: This was a society that mimicked England with small villages that worked together to succeed. New England had full families, and tightly knit towns. There was a sense of community, unlike Virginia, which were mainly plantations. Cities revolved around a church and farms, so many people left, as they were not religious. The Restoration Colonies Key Terms 1. Quakers 2. William Penn 3. Prism theory Quakers: All equal society. They were very religious and friendly, and not liked within New England. Some of them wer
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