American History Mid-Term
Main Themes in the Course
• Racial and Ethical Diversity
• The Uncertain Rise of Democracy
Racial and Ethical Diversity Summary
• Columbus comes from Europe and thinks he is in India. He comes across
many indigenous societies in the New World. This, along with other
explorers (French, Spanish, English, Dutch, etc.), sparks a lot of diversity
throughout the Americas.
• The end of the 1840s marked the start of Asian migrants coming over, and
people started referring to people by skin color, instead of just age and
The Uncertain Rise of Democracy Summary
• American history IS the rise of democracy. It was not an easy process
when implementing democratic ways, as the founding fathers did not want
one. It was thought that a democracy would be a “mob rule” society, so
they founded a republic.
• It really was only a democracy for Rich white men. Women didn’t get to
vote until the 1920, and black people were not equal until the 1960s.
• Power has changed three ways in American history: between men and
women, over economies and work, and ethnic/ racial relations. As men left
for work, women would become the head of the household, and the men
would work for a large business.
• Slavery is another large form of Power within American history. It was the
first main form of unpaid work and was a massive trade. Wages would be
introduced right before the civil war, as equality and democratic ways were
Colonization Key Terms
1. Chinese boats
2. Europe in the 1400s
4. Gold Roads
5. The Virginia Company
6. Plantation Life 7. Jamestown
Chinese Boats: E
Europe in the 1400s: Europe was a backwater in the 1400s, as they had a very
easygoing society with not much technology. They were not a contender to
discovering America at all. They had gone through the Black Death and civil
wars, resulting in a weak structured society. The only reason they sailed west
was because of the Ottoman Empire controlling the south east of Europe.
Aboriginals: Aboriginals ruled the land for 10,000 years. They traveled to North
America on a land bridge from Russia. They were then forced into the south
because of climate. They were very diverse, and no two tribes were alike
(language, rituals, etc.). They were also smarter than Europe at the time, as they
had constructed a city of 200,000 people. They also didn’t believe in private land
ownership, which caused many problems upon Columbus’ arrival.
Gold Roads: Africa had many gold roads that gave them metal and a stable
economy much before the Europeans. They were much further ahead than the
Europeans technology-wise, but lacked in political structure.
The Virginia Company: One of the first ever English Colonies founded in 1607.
They started the colonization in the south and made it a major trade market
within the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.
Jamestown: One of the first main cities within continental America. The first
people there built a fort right on a swamp, so many of its inhabitants died of
malaria. They also failed to find gold or silver and did not farm. They were saved
by aboriginals, but mostly by tobacco. They produced enough to trade and grow
Mercantilism: The economic ideology of basically just exporting more than you
import, and having high tariffs. You want to make as much money as you can off
of this, as Europe was struggling.
From Servants to Slaves Key Terms
1. Slave Trade
2. Raids on Africa
5. New England
Slave Trade: It is the largest forced migration ever. 75% of all American Slavery
was forced, the rest being indentured servants. West African slaves were sent to
Brazil and the Caribbean, and then traded from there or sent right to work.
Raids on Africa: African middlemen did the raids. Survivors were marched
around 100 miles to the coast and put on ships. They were separated from
families and tribes to avoid a revolution. The Royal Africa Company was
eventually set up, which sent slaves straight from Africa to the US, instead of
having to be traded there. The Caribbean: The English and Dutch controlled most of the Caribbean. Trade
was born here such as the slave trade, sugar trade, and indigo trade. The
Caribbean was the capital of the slave trade in this era. Virginia would be much
Puritanism: Puritans came to Plymouth Rock first, and set up New England.
Puritanism was influenced by the reformation of the Church of England. Martin
Luther who said that as long as you had faith in god you would obtain salvation
also influenced them. John Calvin believed in predetermination, which also grew
rapidly in Europe. These two people were very influential to Puritanism and the
protestant reformation. Puritans believed that signs of wealth and luckiness were
God “electing” you to go to heaven. This takes the ideas of Calvin and Luther.
New England: This was a society that mimicked England with small villages that
worked together to succeed. New England had full families, and tightly knit
towns. There was a sense of community, unlike Virginia, which were mainly
plantations. Cities revolved around a church and farms, so many people left, as
they were not religious.
The Restoration Colonies Key Terms
2. William Penn
3. Prism theory
Quakers: All equal society. They were very religious and friendly, and not liked
within New England. Some of them wer