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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

ESSAY IDEAS 1. Fascism Nazism, Italian fascism fascism is a radical and totalitarian nationalist political ideology fascists seek to organize a nation on corporatist perspectives; values; and systems such as the political system and the economy fascists believe that a nation is an organic community that requires strong leadership, singular collective identity, and the will and ability to commit violence and wage war in order to keep the nation strong claim that culture is created by collective national society and its state, that cultural ideas are what give individuals identity, and thus rejects individualism in viewing the nation as an integrated collective community, they claim that pluralism is a dysfunctional aspect of society, and justify a totalitarian state as a means to represent the nation in its entirety they advocate the creation of a single-party state fascist governments forbid and suppress openness and opposition to the fascist state and the fascist movement fascists reject and resist autonomy of cultural or ethnic groups who are not considered part of the fascists nation and who refuse to assimilate or are unable to be assimilated they consider attempts to create such autonomy as an affront and threat to the nation they identify violence and war as actions that create national regeneration, spirit, and vitality they present their ideology as that of an economically trans-class movement that promotes ending economic class conflict to secure national solidarity they believe that economic classes are not capable of properly running a nation, and that a merit-based aristocracy of experienced military persons must rule through regimenting a nations forces of production and securing the nations independence CORE TENETS Nationalism fascists saw the struggle of nation and race as fundamental in society, in opposition to communisms perception of class struggle fascist view of nation is as a single organic entity which binds people together by their ancestry and is a natural unifying force of people fascism seeks to solve economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth, exalting the nation or race above all else, and promoting cults of unity, strength and purity Foreign Policy Italian fascists described expansionist imperialism as a necessity similarly, the Nazis promoted territorial expansionism to provide living space to the German nation fascists opposed pacifism and believed that a nation must have a warrior mentality Authoritarianism many fascist movements support the creation of a totalitarian state some have argued that in spite of Italian fascisms attempt at totalitarianism fascism in Italy became an authoritarian cult of personality around Mussolini a key authoritarian element of fascism is its endorsement of a prime national leader, who is often known simply as the Leader or a similar title fascist leaders who ruled countries were not always heads to states, but heads of government, such as Benito Mussolini, who held power under the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III Social Darwinism fascist movements have commonly held social Darwinist views of nations, races and societies they argue that in order for nations and races to survive in a world defined by perpetual national and racial conflict, nations and races must purge themselves of socially and biologically weak or degenerate people while simultaneously promoting the creation of strong people in Germany, the Nazis utilized social Darwinism to promote their racialist concept of the German nation as being part of the Aryan race and the need for the Aryan race to be strong in order to be victorious in what the Nazis believed was ongoing competition and conflict between races they attempted to strengthen the Aryan race in Germany by killing those they regarded as weaker to this end, the T4 project was introduced in the late 1930s and organized the killing of around roughly 275 000 handicapped and elderly German civilians using carbon monoxide gas Social Interventionism generally, fascist movements endorsed social interventionism dedicated to influencing society to promote the states interests fascists spoke of creating a new man and a new civilization as part of their intention to transform society Mussolini promised a social revolution for remaking the Italian people Hitler promised to purge Germany of non-Aryan influences on society and create a pure Aryan race through eugenics Indoctrination fascist states pursued policies of social indoctrination, through propaganda in education and the media, and through regulation of the production of education and media material education was designed to glorify the fascist movement and inform students of its historical and political importance to the nation it attempted to purge ideas that were not consistent with the beliefs of the fascist movement, and taught students to be obedient to the state thus fascism tends to be anti-intellectual Economic Policies fascists promoted their ideology as a Third Position between capitalism and communism Italian Fascism involved corporatism, a political system in which the economy is collectively managed by employer, workers, and state officials by formal mechanisms at national level fascists advocated a new national class-based economic system, variously termed national corporatism, national socialism, or national syndicalism the common aim of all fascist movements was elimination of the autonomy or, in some cases, the existence of large-scale capitalism fascist governments exercised control over private property but did not nationalize it they pursued economic policies to strengthen state power and spread ideology, such as consolidating trade unions to be state or party-controlled ITALIAN FASCISM born during period of social and political unrest following WWI as it had seen Italy begin to feel sense of nationalism, rather than its historic regionalism despite being an Allied Power, Italy was given what nationalists considered an unfair deal at the Treaty of Versailles when the other allies told Italy to hand over the city of Fiume at the Paris Peace Conference, war veteran Gabriele dAnnunzio declared the independent state there, the Italian Regency of Carnaro he named himself Duce of the nation and declared a constitution, the Charter of Carnaro, which was highly influential to early Fascism, though he himself never became a fascist Benito Mussolini founded Italian fascism as the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento after he returned from WWI, and published a Fascist manifesto the birth of the Fascist movement can be traced to a meeting he held in the Piazza San Sepolcro in Milan on March 23, 1919, which declared the original principles of the Fascists through a series of declarations these included dedication to Italian war veterans, declaration of fascists loyalty to Italy and its opposition to foreign aggressors, pronouncement that fascists would fight against other political factions and declaration of opposition to Bolshevism and socialism, particularly socialism of Italian Socialist Party they also declared their intention to seize power and their opposition to the multi-party representative democracy in Italy fascists took a moderate stance on the economy, effectively declaring that they favoured class collaboration while opposing excessive state intervention into the economy, and calling for pressure on industrialist and workers to be cooperative and constructive Mussolini and the fascists were simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist because this was vastly different from anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described as The Third Way the Fascisti formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts with the goal of restoring order the Blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists and anarchists at parades and demonstrations the government rarely interfered with the Blackshirts actions, due in part to a widespread fear of a Communist revolution the Fascisti grew so rapidly that within 2 years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome also in 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time and was later appointed as PM by the King in 1922 he then went on to install a dictatorship after 10 June 1924 assassination after an anti-fascist writer by agents of Mussolinis secret police Mussolinis colonialism reached further into Africa in an attempt to compete with British and French colonial empires Mussolini spoke of making Italy a nation that was great, respected, and feared throughout Europe, and indeed the world NAZISM (NATIONAL SOCIALISM, GERMANY) the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party) ruled Germany from 1933 until 1945 the party was originally formed as the German Workers Party under the leadership of Anton Drexler, and espoused a combination of racialist nationalism and socialism that rejected the conditions imposed on Germany after WWI the party accused international capitalism of being Jewish-dominated, and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in WWI to ease concerns among potential middle-class nationalist supporters, Drexler made clear that unlike Marxists, the party supported middle-class citizens, and that the partys socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to all German citizens who are deemed part of the Aryan race Drexlers insistence on the inclusion of the term socialist in the partys name had caused tension amongst m
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