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mid term

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Natalie Rothman

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History Mid-Term Review Lectures 2-4 & 7 Lecture 2: Whos Barbarian I Periods: Classical Era (Antiquity): N Major second-wave civilizations during the thousand years between 500 B.C.E and 500 +L8947L,381706:039O70107949KL8507L4419L20,709K0.O,88L.,O07,41Z47O history, a term that highlights enduring traditions that have lasted into modern times and persist still in the twenty-first century. N Confucianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, and Christianity all took shape during this era. N The classical era is derived largely from the experience of Eurasian peoples, for it was on the outer rim of that huge continent that the largest and most influential civilizations took shape in China, India, Persia and the Mediterranean basin. Hellenistic Era (323-30B.C.E): N The Hellenistic period describes the era which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decline or decadence, between the brilliance of the Greek Classical Era and the emergence of the Roman Empire. N Usually taken to begin with the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Hellenistic period may either be seen to end with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC; or the final defeat of the last remaining successor-state to Alexanders empire, the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt in 3130 BC. N The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of colonists which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. People: Cyrus (r.557-530 B.C.E: N The founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. N It was under his own rule that the empire embraced all previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia, parts of Europe and Caucasus. N From the Mediterranean Sea and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, to create the largest empire the world had yet seen. www.notesolution.comDarius (r.522-486BCE): N He was the third NL3J41NL3J8 of the Achaemenid Empire. N Darius held the empire at its peak, then including Egypt, northern India, and parts of Greece. N The decay and downfall of the empire commenced with his death and the coronation of his son, Xerxes I. Darius organized the empire, by dividing it into provinces and placing governors to govern it. N He organized a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. N Darius also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon, and Egypt. Darius created a codification of laws for Egypt. Solon (638-558 BCE): N An Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. N He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens. N His reforms failed in the short term yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE): N He is the most celebrated member of the Argead Dynasty and the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history. N %K0.KL018LJ3L1L.,3.041O0[,3078,2,]L3J.436:0898O,L39K0ZL08570, dissemination of Greek culture during what historians call the Hellenistic Era. Herodotus (c.484-425 BCE): N Ancient Greek historian N He was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative.
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