final review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Natalie Rothman

History Final Review Lectures 17-19 & 21-23 Lecture 17: Charting New Worlds II: Commodities, Production, and Consumption Places: Philippines: N Silver and Global Commerce N $5,3L8K207L.,,O430574:.0419K0Z47O88LO;07:7L3J9K00,7O2407307, N Sp,L3884O08L,3.4O43the Philippines provided a critical link in this emerging network of global commerce N Manila, the colonial capital of the Philippines the destination of annual Spanish shipments of silver N The Silver was taken from the mines of Bolivia Transported to Acapulcoshipped across the pacific to the Philippines Potosi: N Silver transformed much that is touched N %K0Z47O8O,7J0898LO;072L30Z,8L34OL;L, N Population of 160,000 people, Potosi became the largest city in the Americans equivalent in size to London, Amsterdam or Seville N Its wealthy European elite lived in luxury, with all the goods of Europe and Asia at their disposal N %K0.L98,9L;0207L.,32L3078Z47N0L3.43L9L43884K477034:89K,98420 families held the mines N One SpanL8K57L089701077094!4948L,8,54797,L941K0OO Concepts: Trading post Empire: N A station or store in a sparsely settled area established by traders to barter supplies for local products. N By 1600, the Portuguese trading post empire was in steep decline N The small European country was over extended, and rising Asian states such as Japan, Burma, Mughal India, Persia and the sultanate of Oman actively resisted Portuguese commercial control N Other European countries were unwilling to accept a dominant Portuguese role in the ,3L,34.0,3849K0.4390890!479:J,O8011479894243454OL]09K07L.K85L.097,094 Europe www.notesolution.comEast India companies: N More important that the Spanish for spice trade were the Dutch and English o They entered the Indian Ocean commerce in the 17 century N Together they quickly overtook and displaced the Portuguese mostly by force N They were militarily and economically stronger than the Portuguese th N Example: during the 16 century the Dutch had become a highly commercialized and urbanized society, and their business skills and maritime shipping operations were the envy of Europe N They then established their own trading post empires The Dutch focused on the islands of Indonesia and the English on India N The Dutch took control, not only the shipping but also the production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and mace. N There was a lot of bloodshed and enslavement Tokugawa shogunate: N Used silver generated profits to defeat hundreds of rival feudal lords and unify the country N Unlike the Spanish, the shoguns aOOL0ZL9K9K0.4:3978;LJ474:8207.K,39.O,8894 develop a market-based economy and to invest heavily in agricultural and industrial enterprises Columbian exchange: N The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of the animals, plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World to New World). N This exchange of plants and animals transformed European, American, African, and Asian ways of life. N New foods became staples of human diets, and new growing regions opened up for crops. N It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in all of human history. N Christopher Columbusfirst voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large- scale contact between the Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological revolution, hence the name Columbian Exchange. *Silver trade: N N
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